group 13: The Boron FamilyGroup 14: The Carbon FamilyGroup 16: The Oxygen FamilyOxygen and also Sulfur Halides

This section defines the altoalsimce.orgistry the halogens v the key group aspects such together the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and Groups 13 and 14. Words halogen itself way "salt former" in Greek. Halogens such as chlorine, bromine and also iodine have actually properties that enable them to react with other aspects to kind important salts together as salt chloride, also known as table salt.

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Properties of Halogens

Elements such together fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and also astatine belong to team 17, the halogen group. In ~ room temperature fluorine is a yellow gas, chlorine is a pale eco-friendly gas, bromine is a red liquid, and iodine is a violet solid. Astatine is a radioactive element, and exists in nature only in small amounts. Every the halogens exist together diatomic molecules. They have actually high ionization energies and kind the many electronegative group of elements. Their electron configuration, ns2np5, enables them to conveniently react with group 1 and also 2 metals; every halogen often tends to choose up one electron, and the group 1 and Group 2 elements each have tendency to shed one or 2 electrons, respectively. Halogens because of this react many vigorously with team 1 and also Group 2 steels of every main team elements.


Reaction with Water

From a conventional reduction potential table, that is determined that iodine and bromine cannot oxidize water come oxygen since they have smaller palliation potentials than oxygen. Thus, iodine and also bromine carry out not react through water. However, fluorine and also chlorine have actually larger reduction potentials, and can oxidation water.

Fluorine reacts through water vapor to form oxygen and ozone:

<2F_2(g) + 2H_2O(g) ightarrow 4HF(g)+ O_2(g) >

<3F_2(g) + 2H_2O(g) ightarrow 6HF(g) + O_3(g)>

The reaction that water with chlorine, presented below, proceeds an extremely slowly.

Chlorine and bromine are moderately soluble in water. These solutions type solid hydrates in ~ an ice cream lattice. These options are good oxidizing agents. Chlorine reacts reversibly v water to produce acids together in the following example, in i m sorry chloric acid and hydrochloric acid room formed:

Iodine is slightly soluble in water. It has the lowest typical reduction potential of the halogens, and also is thus the least an effective oxidizing agent. Air and also other reagents have the right to oxidize acidified equipment of iodide ions.


Reaction through Hydrogen

All the halogens react directly with hydrogen, developing covalent bond and—at enough levels that purity—colorless gases in ~ room temperature. Hydrogen reacts v fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and also iodine, forming HF, HCl, HBr, and HI, respectively. The bond strength of these molecules decreases under the group: (HF > HCl > HBr > HI).

Iodine and hydrogen reaction non-spontaneously to develop hydrogen iodide:

All the hydrogen halides are soluble in water, in which they kind strong mountain (with the exemption of (HF)). The basic equation that hydrogen halide for the acid reaction is provided below:


Group 1: The Alkali Metals

All the alkali steels react vigorously v halogens to produce salts, the most industrially important of which are NaCl and also KCl.

< 2Na(s) + Cl_2(g) ightarrow 2NaCl(s)>

Sodium Chloride is offered as a preventive for meat and also to melt the ice on the roadways (via freezing allude depression). KCl is important for plant fertilizers because of the positive impact of potassium on tree growth. These metal halides form white ionic crystalline solids and also are all soluble in water except LiF, due to the fact that of the high lattice enthalpy meeting to solid electrostatic attraction in between Li+ and F- ions.


Group 2: The Alkaline earth Metals

The alkaline earth metals reaction to type hydrated halides. These halides space ionic except for those entailing beryllium (the least metallic that the group). Since alkaline planet metals have tendency to lose electrons and halogen atoms tend to acquire electrons (Table P2), the altoalsimce.orgical reaction in between these teams is the following:

where

(M) represents any kind of metal from team 2 and (X) represents fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.

Anhydrous calcium chloride has strong affinity for water, absorbing enough to dissolve its very own crystal lattice. It deserve to be produced directly from limestone, or together a by-product through Solvay Process.


Group 13: The Boron Family

All the group 13 facets react v Halogens to type trihalides.

Aluminum halides take on a dimeric structure
Aluminum Halides

Aluminum Fluoride, (AlF_3), is one ionic compound through a high melting point. However, many of the other aluminum halides kind molecules with the formula (Al_2X_6) ((X) to represent chlorine, bromine, or iodine). As soon as two (AlX_3) systems (or, much more generally, any type of two the same units) join together, the resulting molecule is called a dimer. Aluminum halides are an extremely reactive Lewis acids. They accept electrons and kind acid-base compound referred to as adducts, together in the complying with example:

In this reaction, (AlCl_3) is the Lewis acid and also ((C_2H_5)_2O) is the Lewis base.


Group 14: The Carbon Family

Group 14 elements kind halides with general formula MX4 (CCl4, SiCl4, GeCl4, SnCl4, PbCl4), back some elements such as Ge, Sn, Pb can also type dihalides (MX2). The tetrahalides the carbon, such together CCl4​, can not be hydrolyzed because of non-availability of vacant valence d-orbitals, yet other tetrahalides deserve to be hydrolyzed.


Silicon Halides

Silicon reacts with halogens to kind compounds of the form SiX4, wherein X represents any type of common halogen. In ~ room temperature, SiF4 is a colorless gas, SiCl4 is a colorless liquid, SiBr4 is a colorless liquid, and also SiI4 develops colorless crystals. SiF4 and SiCl4 can be fully hydrolyzed, however SiBr4 have the right to be only partially hydrolyzed.


Metal Halides

Lead and tin are metals in team 14. Believe occurs together both SnO2 and also SnO4. SnCl2 is a an excellent reducing agent and also is found in tinstone. SnF2 to be once supplied as additive come toothpaste but now is changed by NaF.


Group 16: The Oxygen Family


Oxygen and Sulfur Halides

Sulfur reacts straight with all the halogens other than iodine. It spontaneously combines through fluorine to type sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, a colorless and also inert gas. It deserve to also form SF4 i beg your pardon is a powerful fluorinating agent. Sulfur and also chlorine form SCl2, a red liquid, which is used in the manufacturing of the gift mustard gas. This reaction is presented below:

3SF4 + 4BCl3 → 4BF3 + 3SCl2 + 3Cl2

Oxygen combines through fluoride to kind the compound OF2 and also O2F2​. The frameworks of this molecules resemble that of hydrogen peroxide, although they room much more reactive.


Halogen Oxides

Common halogen oxides include (Cl_2O), (ClO_2), (Cl_2O_4)​, and (I_2O_5). Chlorine monoxide, the anhydride the hypochlorous acid, reaction vigorously through water as displayed below, providing off chlorine and also oxygen as products.

Chlorine dioxide and also chlorine perchlorate form when sulfuric acid reacts v potassium chlorate. These compounds are comparable to the nitrogen compound (NO_2) and (N_2O_4). Iodine pentoxide develops iodic anhydride when reacted with water, together shown:


Halogen Oxoacids

Compounds the are comprised of both oxygen and also hydrogen are considered to be oxygen acids, or oxoacids. Usual oxoacids are displayed in the table below.

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Table: Oxoacids the Halogens

HClO

HBrO

HIO

HClO2

HBrO3

HIO3

HClO3

HBrO4

HIO4

HClO4


Halogen Oxoanions

The oxoanions that chlorine space following:

Hypochlorite, OCl- Chlorite, ClO2- Chlorate, ClO3- Perchlorate, ClO4-

All this compounds have typical uses. For example, salt chlorite is used as bleaching agent because that textiles. Chlorate is a very an excellent oxidizing agent and is really important in matches and fireworks.


Answers

Iodine and also bromine cannot oxidize water to oxygen due to the fact that they have low electrode potential. Hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate Aluminum

(AlCl_3) is a molecular compound (molecular formula)

evident charges Al (+3) and Cl (-1) Electronegativity of Al is 1.61 Electronegativity of Cl is 3.16 The distinction in electronegativities is 1.55 Therefore bonds are covalent

(AlF_3) is an ionic link (formula compound)

Ionic charges Al (+3) and also F (-1) Electronegativity that Al is 1.61 The difference in electronegativities is 2.37 Therefore bonds are Ionic

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