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nitrogen group element, any of the chemical elements that constitute group 15 (Va) that the periodic table. The group is composed of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and moscovium (Mc). The elements share specific general similarities in chemical behaviour, though they are plainly differentiated native one one more chemically, and also these similarity reflect common features the the electronic structures of your atoms.

Probably no other group of the aspects is more familiar to the layperson than this group. Return the six elements together comprise less than 0.2 percent by load of earth crust, they assume an importance much out of proportion to your abundance. This is specifically true of the elements nitrogen and phosphorus, i beg your pardon constitute 2.4 and 0.9 percent, respectively, that the complete weight the the human being body.


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Test your bond through the regular table of aspects in this quiz on all 118 chemical elements and also their symbols. You may be familiar with the chemical symbols for hydrogen and also oxygen, however can you match such lower-profile aspects as gadolinium and also erbium v their equivalent symbols?

The nitrogen facets have, perhaps, the widest range in physical state of any kind of group in the periodic table. Nitrogen, because that example, is a gas that liquefies at around −200° C and freezes around −210° C, conversely, bismuth is a solid melting at 271° C and boiling at about 1,560° C. Chemically, too, the selection in properties is wide, nitrogen and also phosphorus being usual nonmetals; arsenic and also antimony, metalloids; and bismuth, a metal. Also in figure these aspects exhibit good variety. Nitrogen is colourless both as a gas and also as a liquid. Phosphorus exist in a selection of physical modifications, or allotropic forms, including the acquainted white, extremely reactive type that need to be save under water to protect against it indigenous igniting in the air; a much much less reactive red or violet form; and a black modification that, although the very least known, shows up to it is in the most stable the all. Arsenic exists greatly as a dull gray metallic solid, however a more reactive yellow, solid type is likewise known, and also there are indications that other develops exist under details conditions. Antimony is a silver, metallic appearing, yet somewhat brittle solid; and bismuth is a silver-white steel with a map of pink in the lustre.

Together through carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and also sulfur, the an initial two members that this group, nitrogen and phosphorus, space the primary chemical elements incorporated into living systems. Nitrogen and also phosphorus are conveniently removed from the floor by tree growth and also therefore space immensely important contents of plant foods. Such designations together “5–10–5” on advertising fertilizers represent the corresponding weight percentage composition the the product in terms of nitrogen, phosphoric oxide, and also potassium oxide (potassium being the 3rd principal element needed for healthy and balanced plant growth). Nitrogen in fertilizers might be in the type of sodium or potassium nitrates, ammonia, ammonium salts, or various organic combinations. Phosphorus is gave chiefly as not natural phosphate.


These same elements, nitrogen and also phosphorus, can also be supplied in ways less beneficial to man. The explosives in typical warfare are heavily dependent ~ above their contents of nitrogen compounds, and also the deadly nerve gases room composed of necessary compounds the phosphorus.

On the various other hand, arsenic, i beg your pardon is infamous for the toxicity, is most valuable in agriculture, whereby its compounds space an help in regulating harmful insect pests. Antimony and bismuth are offered chiefly in steel alloys, since they send unique and desirable properties to this alloys.

Comparative chemistry

Electronic configurations

Similarities in orbit arrangement

In the regular table, each of the nitrogen group elements occupies the 5th position amongst the key group aspects of its period, a place designated 15. In regards to the electronic configuration that its atoms, each nitrogen group element possesses an outermost shell of five electrons. In each case, these occupy an external s orbital totally (with two electrons) and contribute one electron to every of the three outer p orbitals (the orbitals gift electron regions within the atom and also the letter designations, s, p, d, and also f, being offered to designate various classes that orbital). The arrangement of outer electrons in the atom of the nitrogen elements thus provides three half-filled external orbitals that, by communication with half-filled orbitals of the atoms of various other elements, can form three covalent bonds. The various other atoms may entice the mutual electrons either more or much less strongly than perform the nitrogen team atoms; because of this the latter may acquire either optimistic or negative charges and also exist in oxidation states of +3 or −3 in your compounds. In this respect, the nitrogen aspects are alike.

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Another similarity among the nitrogen aspects is the visibility of one unshared, or lone, pair the electrons, which remains after the three covalent bonds, or their equivalent, have been formed. This lone pair permits the molecule come act together an electron pair donor in the development of molecular enhancement compounds and complexes. The access of the lone pair relies upon various factors, such together the loved one size the the atom, that partial fee in the molecule, the spatial features of other teams in the molecule, and the as-yet poorly interpreted phenomenon dubbed the “inert pair effect.” This effect consists of a propensity for the paired s electrons in the outermost covering of the more heavier atoms that a significant group to stay chemically unreactive. Because of it, the electron pair-donating ability of the nitrogen group aspects is no uniform transparent the group; it is probably best with nitrogen, less with the intermediary elements, and also nonexistent v bismuth.