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Within days of the fall of fort Sumter, four an ext states join the Confederacy: Virginia, phibìc Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The battle lines were now drawn.
On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in virtually every way. Practically 21 million civilization lived in 23 north states. The South claimed just 9 million human being — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. In spite of the North"s greater population, however, the South had an army practically equal in size throughout the an initial year of the war.
The North had actually an substantial industrial benefit as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. Yet that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North manufactured 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent that its railroad locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and also shoes. The North had actually twice the density of railroads every square mile. There to be not also one rifleworks in the entire South.
All of the major ingredients the gunpowder were imported. Since the North regulated the navy, the seas to be in the hand of the Union. A blockade can suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and willpower.
The South could produce every the food the needed, though transporting it to soldiers and civilians was a significant problem. The South likewise had a good nucleus that trained officers. 7 of the eight army colleges in the country were in the South.
The South additionally proved to be an extremely resourceful. Through the finish of the war, it had established armories and also foundries in several states. Castle built vast gunpowder mills and also melted down thousands of church and also plantation bells for bronze to construct cannon.
The South"s greatest strength lay in the fact that it to be fighting top top the protective in its very own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners could harass northern invaders.
The military and also political objectives of the Union were much more complicated to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and also occupy the South. It had to damage the South"s capacity and will to stand up to — a formidable challenge in any kind of war.
Southerners appreciated the initial benefit of morale: The south was fighting to preserve its way of life, conversely, the North to be fighting to keep a union. Slavery did not become a moral reason of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.
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When the battle began, many key questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave states of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brother or France had concerned the help of the South? What if a few decisive early Confederate victories had actually turned northern public opinion versus the war?Indeed, the phibìc looked much far better on paper. Yet many determinants undetermined in ~ the outbreak that war could have tilted the balance sheet towards a different outcome.