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WHO indict on drawing Blood: ideal Practices in Phlebotomy. Geneva: people Health Organization; 2010.


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This thing covers every the measures recommended for safe phlebotomy and reiterates the embraced principles because that blood drawing and blood collection (31). The chapter includes background info (Section 2.1), practical guidance (Section 2.2) and illustrations (Section 2.3) relevant to ideal practices in phlebotomy.

The information given in this section underpins that provided in the remainder of component II for certain situations. Thing 4 also provides information relevant to the procedure for illustration blood given listed below in ar 2.2, but focuses top top blood collection from donors.

Institutions have the right to use this guidelines to create standard operation procedures. Such steps should clearly state the risks to patients and health workers, and also the way to alleviate those dangers – discussed listed below in part 2.1.4 and also 2.2.


2.1. Background details on ideal practices in phlebotomy

Best practices in phlebotomy show off the adhering to factors:


planning ahead;
using an ideal location;
quality of activities sampling.

2.1.1. Plan ahead

This is the many important part of transporting out any kind of procedure, and is typically done at the start of a phlebotomy session.


2.1.2. Utilizing an proper location

The phlebotomist should work in a quiet, clean, well-lit area, even if it is working through outpatients or inpatients.


2.1.3. Quality control

Quality assurance is an important part of ideal practice in epidemic prevention and control (1). In phlebotomy, it help to minimization the opportunity of a mishap. Table 2.1 list the main materials of top quality assurance, and also explains why they space important.


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2.1.4. Quality care for patients and also health workers

Several components can enhance safety standards and quality of treatment for both patients and health workers, and laboratory tests. These factors, questioned below, include:


Availability of appropriate supplies and protective equipment

Procurement of provides is the straight responsibility that the governmental (management) structures responsible for setting up phlebotomy services. Administration should:


make obtainable sufficient activities sample tubes to prevent dangerous methods (e.g. Decanting blood come recycle activities tubes).

Several safety-engineered tools are accessible on the market; such devices reduce exposure come blood and also injuries. However, the use of such devices should be accompanied by other infection prevention and control practices, and also training in your use. Not all safety gadgets are applicable to phlebotomy. Before selecting a safety-engineered device, users need to thoroughly investigate obtainable devices to determine their suitable use, compatibility with existing phlebotomy practices, and efficacy in protecting staff and also patients (12, 33). Annex B provides more information on infection prevention and also control, safety equipment and also best practice; Annex C offers a considerable guide to devices easily accessible for illustration blood, including safety-engineered equipment.

For settings with short resources, price is a driving factor in procurement the safety-engineered devices.

Where safety-engineered gadgets are no available, expert use the a needle and syringe is acceptable.


Availability of post-exposure prophylaxis

Accidental exposure and details information about an incident should be recorded in a register.

Support services must be supported for those that undergo accidental exposure. PEP can assist to avert HIV and hepatitis B epidemic (13, 27). Hepatitis B immunization need to be noted to all wellness workers (including cleaners and also waste handlers), either upon entry into health-care solutions or as part of PEP (34). Annex D has details of PEP for hepatitis B and also HIV.


Avoidance of contaminated phlebotomy equipment

Tourniquets room a potential source of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with up to 25% of tourniquets contaminated through absence of hand toilet on the part of the phlebotomist or reuse of contaminated tourniquets (35). In addition, reusable finger-prick devices and also related point-of-care testing devices (e.g. Glucometers) contaminated v blood have been implicated in outbreaks the hepatitis B (4, 5, 36).

To protect against contamination, any common-use items, such together glucometers, must be visibly clean prior to use top top a patient, and also single-use items must not be reused.


Training in phlebotomy

All staff must be trained in phlebotomy, to avoid unnecessary hazard of exposure come blood and also to alleviate adverse occasions for patients.


Supervision by skilled staff and also structured maintain is essential for all wellness workers, including physicians, that undertake blood sampling.
Patient cooperation

One the the essential markers of top quality of treatment in phlebotomy is the involvement and cooperation the the patient; this is mutually valuable to both the health worker and also the patient.

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Clear info – either written or verbal – have to be accessible to every patient that undergoes phlebotomy. Annex F provides sample text for explaining the blood-sampling procedure to a patient.


2.1.5. Quality of laboratory sampling

Factors that affect the outcome of laboratory results during collection and transportation include: