Sweet flavours are inevitably connected with sugar. In clinical terms, sugar is one or much more molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and also oxygen. These might be single molecules, together in the instance of glucose or fructose, or combinations of molecules: sucrose, for instance, is composed of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule external inspection together. I have actually a details reason for referring come sucrose: usual table sugar, the sort usually used in cake and also pastry making, is in fact sucrose.

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There are many reasons why this sort of sugar has come to be so well-known in cooking and also baking. An initial of all, the is widely available: sucrose, or usual “sugar”, is extract from sugar cane and beet, which are straightforward to grow virtually anywhere in the world. Not surprisingly, its annual production quantities to 70 million tons.

Melting Sugar: chemical Reactions

Sucrose is very soluble: as much as 2000 grams that sucrose can be dissolved in one litre the water! However, the is mainly due to the way it reacts the it has end up being the protagonist that our sweetest recipes.

The chemical reaction we are most familiar with is that of melting: sugar decomposes at a temperature ranging in between 184 and 186°C. This is a an extremely recent discovery we owe to a team of researchers in Illinois. Basically, when we heat sucrose gently, this to produce a phenomenon well-known as “apparent melting”. In other words, street crystals carry out not actually melt but produce a proper reaction referred to as “inversion”. What really happens is that the 2 molecular contents of street – glucose and fructose – decompose. In your turn, castle give means to “caramelisation”, consisting of two phases.


In the first phase, the structure of sugar changes as the heat increases. Us can conveniently observe this because that ourselves once we see sugar beginning to “melt”. At this point, the 2nd phase kicks in: the extr increase in heat reasons the removed of the water molecule. This produces a reaction referred to as “beta-elimination” which leader to the development of hydroxymethylfurfural. The substance dims in colour and tastes an ext and much more of caramel. If also much warm is applied, nothing yet carbon will remain, which method that our caramel is well and also truly burnt!

In brief, the of heater sucrose may appear to it is in a banal operation however it deserve to offer us a series of exciting reactions. In details “inversion”, which services from an acid pH, provides us “invert” sugars that are really hygroscopic: this way they room able come absorb a high number of water molecules, which makes them right for prepare soft sweets and desserts or, indeed, for any recipe us wish to store moist even when it has to be exposed to the air.

A reminder for make Soft Sweets and also Biscuits

We can use this rule to plain sugar to give our sweets a much more or much less soft consistency, biscuits in particular.

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First that all, we need some invert sugar which can also be house made using 200 grams of sucrose, the juice the one large lemon and 140 grams the water. Place all 3 ingredients in a small saucepan and slowly lug them come the boil over a short heat, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Now, allow the mixture simmer for at least fifty percent an hour, stirring as small as possible. Finally, leave it come cool and transfer the syrup come a jar, for use once needed.

You deserve to use it to prepare pumpkin biscuits for example. Grate 100 grams the pumpkin and add it to 250 grams of flour, 1 egg, 50 grams the invert sugar, two spoonfuls of sour cream and also 30 grams the butter. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly, roll out the mixture and also use a biscuit cutter to obtain the form you require prior to arranging your biscuits on stove tray. Roasted for roughly 25 minute in an oven preheated to 160° C. These delicious biscuits will constantly be soft and also moist thanks to the keys of sugar!