Joel Stein wrote in Time, "In an America whereby the Chinese were still stereotyped as meek house servants and also railroad workers, Bruce Lee was every steely sinew, threaten stare and cocky pointy fingers---a Clark Kent who didn"t need to change outfits...He to be the redeemer, not only for the Chinese yet for all the geeks and dorks and pimpled teenage masses the went up to the theaters to check out his activity films. He to be David, with spin-kicks and flying leaps an ext captivating than any type of slingshot."
Lee honed his craft together a martial arts instructor in the U.S. Before making his debut in the short-lived TV series The eco-friendly Hornet. Struggling to break right into Hollywood, he returned to his hometown Hong Kong, where he catapulted to global fame with hits favor The big Boss and also Fist that Fury before passing away in 1972 at period 32 from swelling of the brain.
You are watching: Jet li related to bruce lee
good Websites and Sources: Jet Lee official Site jetli.com ; Bruce Lee foundation bruceleefoundation.org ; Bruce Lee, the magnificent Wind bruceleedivinewind.com . Book: ”Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit” by Bruce Thomas, the bassist in Elvis Costello’s group The Attractions.
good Websites and also Sources top top Chinese Film: Chinese Movie Database dianying.com ; net Movie Database /www.imdb.com ; Shelly Kraicer’s Chinese Cinema website chinesecinemas.org ; modern-day Chinese literature and society (MCLC) source List mclc.osu.edu ; iFilm Connections---Asia and also Pacific asianfilms.org ; Love Asia movie loveasianfilm.com ; newspaper of Chinese Cinemas intellectbooks.co.uk ; Wikipedia post on Chinese Cinema Wikipedia ; Senses that Cinema sensesofcinema.com ; film in China (Chinese federal government site) china.org.cn ; magazine of Interent resources newton.uor.edu ; Chinese, Japanese, and Korean CDs and also DVDs in ~ Yes Asia yesasia.com and also Zoom Movie zoommovie.com ; experienced on Chinese film: Stanley Rosen, a professor in ~ the college of southern California.
Bruce Lee"s beforehand Life
The child of a Hong Kong opera singer, Lee to be born in mountain Francisco ~ above November 27, 1940, the Year that the Dragon, if his father to be on tour. Lee was a sickly kid with a female name (Li Jun Fan) given to him by his mother to ward off evil spirits. She additionally pierced one of his ears in the belief that the spirits would leave that alone if they thought he to be a girl.
Lee’s father to be from Shunde in southerly Guangdong Province. In 1941 he moved with his family members to Hong Kong. Start at the age of five he appeared as a kid star in 20 films and rarely verified up in ~ school. Cultivation up in Hong Kong he took ballroom dance classes, trained in the Chinese kung fu layout of soup chun, took component in inter-school boxing competitions and also was greatly impacted by the drug addiction of a childhood friend.
Lee was skinny, bespectacled kid. In 1953, he shed a street fight and also began taking kung-fu lessons as a method of protecting himself. He likewise began a life-long pursuit to rotate his body into a well-tuned fighting device through diet, exercise, load training, and meditation. As a teens Lee was formally trained in the martial art in the wing Chin kung fu bespeak under a master teacher in Hong Kong. Lee’s layout was recognized as Jee Kune do (“Way the the Intercepting Fist”).
In 1959, at the age of 18, Lee returned to the United claims to study approach at the college of Washington in Seattle. His mommy sent him there so he might receive dual citizenship and also to save him away from his local gang. He functioned at a Chinese restaurant, met his wife, went to college, and also got a task teaching the soup Chun-style the marital arts. In 1963, Lee opened up his an initial kung-fu school, teaching Jee Kune Do. He teach in both Seattle in Oakland.
Bruce Lee, physics Fitness and Television
In 1964, Lee gotten in a competition in lengthy Beach, California---the very first major American demonstration of kung fu. That have back belt Dan Inosanto a good fight. Inosanto request Lee to it is in his student. Lee relocated to Los Angeles and also become a physics fitness freak. He ran, lifted weights and did isometrics. That experimented with electrical impulses which he used to wake up his muscles while that slept. He consumed vitamins, royal jelly, steroids and even liquid steaks. Lee once wrote: "Research your won experiences for the truth. Absorb what is useful...Add what is specifically your won...The developing individual...is more important than any type of style or system."
In 1966 and also 1967, Lee played Kato, a Japanese chauffeur, ~ above the environment-friendly Hornet, a tongue-and-cheek super hero television series made by the creators the Batman. The role gave his teaching career a boost. Among his students were Steve McQueen, James Coburn and also Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.
Lee arisen the idea for television series that became Kung Fu. David Carradine to be selected over Lee for the top role. According to a Warner Bros memo: "The American public won’t sit because that a Chinaman showing up in your living room every week."
Off screen, he had reputation because that arrogance and also aggression. Insanto later on said, "Although he had a short temper, Bruce Lee to be a very humane and multidimensional person. If you were in his circle of nearby friends, he to be open and joking every the time.
Bruce Lee"s activity Style
Lee was is known for the funny sounds he made when he fought and the unexplained poses and stances the struck as he ready to execute battle. That was famous for a combat method called the “one-inch punch” and reportedly provided fencing methods in his martial arts maneuvers yet used his arms instead of a sword.
"No could make violence as beautiful together Lee"s," created Stein. "He had a cockiness that passed together charisma. And also when the whooped like a crane, jumped in the air and also simultaneously kicked two bad guys right into unconsciousness, every while punching out 2 others...Off screen, girlfriend knew the actual Lee could do that to."
Bruce Lee"s Hong Kong Films
To end up being a movie star, Lee had actually to leaving Los Angeles for Hong Kong. That blamed his lack of methods in Hollywood ~ above discrimination against Asians. In 1971, that signed a contact with the Hong Kong company golden Harvest.
Lee starred in 3 Hong Kong films: “Big Boss” (1971); “Fist of Fury” (1972), featuring classic numchuk work; “Way the the Dragon” (1972), in which Lee war American karate killers and Mafia killers.
Of these 3 one was almost unwatchable and also other two had only the fight scenes to redeem them. The new York time film critic Vincent Canby wrote, his films make "the worst Italian western look prefer the many solemn and noble success of the at an early stage Soviet Cinema."
The plot the Lee"s films were all pretty much the same. He plays a Robin-Hood-like great guy that sticks ofr irdnary Chinese that are gaining pushed around by criminals and bullies. In ~ he beginning Lee makes a vow not also fight. After human being close come him space exploited and killed that renounces his vow and seek retribution by killing lots of people.
Bruce Lee"s Hollywood Films
Lee"s films made several money in Asia, which recorded Hollywood’s attention. He was invited back to the United states to make films, something he dreamed about. “Enter the Dragon” (1973), a joint Hollywood and Hong Kong manufacturing was the result.
In “Enter the Dragon” Lee war villains who runs a kung fu academy together a cover because that a medicine smuggling operation. The climatic fight step takes place in a room that mirrors versus a claw-fisted rival. The film has earned more than $200 million and is still renowned today. .
“Game the Death” (1978) was released five years ~ Lee"s death. Lee died while do the film and also appears in only around 40 minute of the film. Numerous scenes use Lee look-a -likes through fake beards and also sunglasses and also clips indigenous previous Bruce Lee films. Over there is even some footage from Lee’s real life funeral. In the film Lee fights 7-foot-1-inch basketball star Kareem Abdul Jabar and was may be to kick him in the challenge with one foot still on the ground. The film was absurd and also didn’t do an extremely at the box office.
Bruce Lee"s Death
Lee died at the age of 32 on July 20, 1973 of a brain aneurysm in ~ his mistress"s residence one month before the premier of “Enter the Dragon”. Some believe the injury was caused by a blow to the head. Rather say the died ended up being of a trouble with his adrenaline gland, exacerbated by the overuse the cortisone. One autopsy report his death was linked to a weird reaction come a prescription painkiller referred to as Equagesic.
Doctors additionally found traces the marijuana in his blood. Some have speculated that died from eating hash cookies. Follow to the concept his body, which had only 1 percent fat, to be unable to transaction with large amounts of THC. Some think his stash was poisoned v cortisone by jealousy Hong Kong relocate moguls.
Lee was hidden at Lake view Cemetery in Seattle. The left no will and also was no a well-off man. At the time of his death, Lee was a fairly large star in Asia however still reasonably unknown in the united States. His obituary in the new York times was only eight sentence long. The documentary “Bruce Lee: The Man and also the Legend” was released in 1973. It has interviews v Steve McQueen, James Coburn and Chuck Norris.
Bruce Lee"s Legacy
Lee had actually two youngsters with his wife, actress Linda Lee-Cadwell. His boy Brandon Lee was eliminated in 1993 when making his very first feature film, “The Crow”. His daughter Shannon Lee remained in the 1998 movie “Enter the Eagles”. The mansion in Hong Kong where Lee live is currently a by-the-hour love hotel. The was marketed two years after his death and also transformed by its owner into the "Romantic Hotel."
Bruce Lee is more popular and recognized in Hong Kong and also the West than in mainland China in component because as soon as he was the height of his fame in the 1970s China was in the middle of the social Revolution.
Lee is admired because that helping rise the condition of Chinese in certain and instilling pride in decimal in general. Liu Jikang, a representative through Sony films in Beijing, said the Los Angeles Times, “Before his movies couple of foreigners knew around the Chinese, however his films abruptly offered up a very positive photo of China.”
David Henry Hwang, who is working on a play around Lee, said the Lee aided elevate Chinese native the ranking of cooks and laundry men to mathematics geniuses and agency leaders. The told the Los Angeles Times, “For the very first time ~ above the 20th century a Chinese guy was seen as a hero, together someone, that stood for justice and also all the things we linked with heroism. The was fully different for Chinese at the time he came along.”
All the civil liberties to Bruce Lee’s name. Likeness, trademarks and also works are owned by Concord Moon, a Los-Angeles-based restricted partnership regulated in part by Shannon Lee. Licensing the Bruce Lee’s name and also products is worth millions of dollars however can not attached, according to Shannon Lee’s wishes, come tobacco products, alcohol or weapons. “Basically, what we shot to execute is operation the company with mine father’s heritage I mind,” Shannon said.
In mainland China Lee’s films are extensively pirated and his photo is widely used without permission or royalty fees. Actual Fym--- a chain of a 100 or therefore restaurants, doesn’t use the Lee name yet in their logo the use an image of a jumping kung fu fighter that looks unmistakable favor Lee.
Bruce Lee"s Projects
In 2006, the household of Bruce Lee said that was functioning on a movie of Bruce Lee’s life based a biography about Lee through his brothers Robert Lee Chun-fai; and the first statue that Bruce Lee to be unveiled in the Bosnian town of Mostar as method of uniting the various ethnic teams in Bosnia.
Among the project including Concord Moon space a CGI movie, an animated feature film, a live-action television collection and a Broadway music by David Henry Hwang, who “M Butterfly” won a Tony compensation for finest play in 1988. Concord Moon has provided its approval come the CCTV project.
The CGI movie is being developed by Li Cheng and also J.A. Media. Plans are to start shooting in April that 2005 and release the film before the 2008 Olympics. There are plans because that shooting in Hong Kong and Seattle and perhaps other cities in the U.S., Europe or mainland China. It is no clear what type of arrangements have actually been made v the Lee family.
The movie “Finishing the Game” by director Justin Lin spoofs a movie made after ~ Lee’s death with body doubles and features 50 Bruce-Lee look-likes selected indigenous a enormous audition in Los Angeles the aimed to gain 100 the them. Men of oriental descent native a range of nations showed up. One Korean-America gibbs who got a component told the new York Times, “People said me i look favor Bruce Lee but I grew up in the West so i’ve had civilization tell me ns look like Sandra Oh.” The story behind the film is the the look-alikes all want a single component and room their numbers are decreased in some very unpleasant ways
In 2006, it was announced that a Bruce Lee-themed park will be built in Shunde---the genealogical home the Bruce Lee’s family. It will contain a statue that Bruce Lee, memorial hall, martial arts academy and also conference center and also a rollercoaster the let the end a Bruce Lee howl. The park is expected to price $25.5 million and also be completed in time ofr the Olympics in 2008. The actress Betty Ting Pei donated a pair numchucks that Lee as soon as used. Shunde to be the hometown that Lee’s father and grandfather. Lee to be born in san Francisco and also only checked out the town when when he was a kid.
In January 2009, a setup was authorized to change Bruce Lee’s Kowloon residence from a love hotel right into a traveler attraction ~ the hotel’s owner released it and hotel tycoon Yu Pang-line chose to donate the usage of it come the city that Hong Kong. The arrangement calls for Lee’s study and training room to it is in decorated with weapons and paraphernalia like those offered in his films.
2010 Movie around Young Bruce Lee
A $4.6 million Chinese-language manufacturing released two days prior to what would have been Lee"s 70th birthday on November 27, 2010 was around Lee’s early on life before he ended up being famous and also was based upon memories the Lee"s siblings. “Bruce Lee, mine Brother” traces the actor"s life farming up in Hong Kong prior to he left to study in the U.S.
"Many world know around his movies and also his fighting viewpoint after he ended up being famous. Yet very couple of people know around his family, his parents, his first love, what the did on movie sets together a young actor," producer Manfred Wong told AP. "This production uses a brand-new perspective to understanding a person. We see someone who is real and also fragile. The Bruce Lee we view in his films is deified," said Wong Yiu-keung, head that the Hong Kong Bruce Lee fan club and an torture to the film.
AP reported: “Audiences watch Lee courting his first love interest,launching his to chat career as a well-known child actor and pained through a childhood friend"s medicine addiction. He flashes his ballroom run moves, beginning training in the Chinese kung fu layout of soup chun and also takes part in one inter-school boxing competition.
Cast in the lead function is Hong Kong newcomers Aarif Lee, that is not regarded the so late actor. The spicy facial features of the 23-year-old singer-songwriter that hails native a family members of mixed Chinese, Malaysian and Middle eastern heritage do him a credible stand-in because that Bruce Lee, whose mommy was component German. The production was based upon input native Lee"s younger brothers Robert and his two older sisters. Lee"s daughter Shannon Lee and widow Linda Lee Cadwell, however, were not involved and also there have actually been proposal of interfamily controversy.
Rebirth that Bruce Lee"s wing Chun Kung Fu Style
In December 2011, AFP reported: ‘sam Lau choose up his sword and waves the in a series of terrifying slashes together he runs towards a student, that retreats laughing nervously. All around them, kung fu students grapple fiercely. The college student have pertained to Lau"s Hong Kong studio---some indigenous as far away as Italy---to hone their moves in the kung fu style referred to as wing chun, i m sorry is top top the climb again decades after the fatality of that most renowned follower, Bruce Lee.
Many credit transaction wing chun"s renewed popularity to a collection of films about Yip Man, among the art"s greatest "sifus", or teachers, and also most famously the guy who rotate Lee from street fighter to martial art legend. "I began to find out wing chun due to the fact that of the movie "Ip Man". He to be a good person," claimed Sam Ng, 12. "When Yip male saw someone beating who else, he would certainly stand up and assist to rescue them." Ng shows off a series of spicy chopping gestures followed by a formal bow.
But despite students may be carried to soup chun by the 2008 blockbuster certification Donnie Yen -- or that sequel and also prequel -- it is the health and self-defence benefits that save them sparring, stated Yip"s son, Yip Ching, 77. "Yip male let the people know about wing chun but it"s even more popular now," he said. Lau, 64, was once Yip"s assistant and also is currently a sifu in his very own right through over 1,000 pupils. He says that wing chun appeals to a broad selection of students because of its focus on cunning and focus quite than brute force. "I choose it because now i am not shy," an Italian student said. "Before, i was shy, but now i have found a different part of myself. Ns have much more positive energy."
Lau likewise credits the growth in college student numbers come the Internet, which enables would-be martial artists to instantly uncover Yip"s followers and also their kung fu schools fairly than what he sees as cheap imitations. "Wing chun is the ideal kung fu in the world, and we need to tell the world, this is the exactly wing chun," that said. "People watch my website, they to speak this is really good, this is Bruce Lee again." yet exact number of soup chun students about the world are difficult to come by, and this, says Lau, is a symptom of wing chun"s problems.
Wing Chun style of Kung Fu
According come legend the wing chun style of kung fu was founded by Yim soup Chun, a young woman in southern China during the Qing dynasty who used methods taught to she by a nun to overcome a neighborhood warlord make the efforts to trap her into marriage. Yip Man lugged her arts to Hong Kong and, with Bruce Lee and also the heyday that Hong Kong film, come the attention of the world."A lady in a dangerous instance can perform something an extremely serious, very fierce -- assault the eye, the chin, the neck -- wing chun is real fighting, real defence that counts on your technique," Lau said.
Fortunately, Lau"s studios in Hong Kong"s teeming Tsim Sha Tsui are complimentary of pupils gouging one another"s eyes out. Instead they was standing in pairs grappling through their arms in one exercise referred to as chi sao, or "sticky hands" -- a key element of soup chun in i beg your pardon students learn to respond instantly to an opponent"s movements.Other practice involve kicks and punches, if students may likewise train with wooden dummies and, in progressed stages, poles or swords.
Students discover to outwit adversaries with speed and deliver multiple punches in quick succession while continuing to be balanced approximately a center line. The most vital exercises room not the many spectacular, yet Lau"s students say they train the body to react faster than the brain.They likewise lead come a different state the mind and body in which relaxation enables total focus, says Lau"s disciple, Italian Furio Piccinini.
"Even when punching exceptionally fast you have to likewise be relaxed... Usually you think the to beat you use force, however that"s not true, you use the body weight to punch and to build power," Piccinini said. "If you space relaxed, you deserve to develop good power. Ns think that"s significant -- it"s choose geometry, physics. V a straightforward movement you can push very, really hard."
With roots in down-and-dirty street fighting, the sport has actually no standardised device of exams and also competitions, and lacks the global profile of various other martial arts prefer judo and taekwondo. Lau look at it as his mission come "unify wing chun" to maintain Yip Man"s methods for the future."I have actually been asking the Chinese government to promote wing chun, to develop it and tell the civilization to follow," he said. "But they just know around gold medals and the Olympic Games. With several teachers claiming to be the heirs the Yip Man, Lau"s search to come to be the head of a joined wing chun movement may prove difficult.
The crowd the gathers in ~ Yip"s grave because that an autumn commemoration reflects the old man is far from forgotten. Part European visitors have actually no language in common with Yip"s local fans, but all rowdily honour him with incense, rice wine and also a totality barbecued pig. One Hong Kong disciple, Tony Ng, has actually only been learning for a year however sees soup chun featuring greatly in his future. "I"m learning to usage my totality body because that fighting," the said. "It"s very easy to say but very daunting to do."
Jet Li has actually been called the Fred Astaire that Hong Kong activity film. The is well-known for his lightning quick moves and also inventive choreography. He has been making movies due to the fact that 1982. The “Once ~ above a Time in China” series made that a Hong Kong superstar.He was 46 in 2009. He has actually made kung fu movie in both mainland China and also Hong Kong. He resides in Shanghai.
Jet Li was born Li Lian-Jie. He began studying wushu in ~ the age of 7 and also eventually became a five-time all-China wushu champion. In 1974, the performed ~ above the White residence lawn in former of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger as component of the People"s Republic junior wushu team.
Jet Li has actually been married twice, he claimed his very first marriage was done the end of obligation and never developed into loving relationship. His 2nd marriage come his existing wife, actress Nina Li, he said, was the end of love. On his first wife he said, “In state of exactly how much feel each human being devoted, she maybe gave 90 percent or 80 percent. At many I gave...I still haven’t figured the out. She was a classmate two years his elder. “My family members was poor,” that said. “Her family members was well-off. She frequently took care of me. That’s how it happened. Ns didn’t know what love was.”
Li married Nina Li in September 1999. They have actually two daughters. “You realize, “I placed myself the end there. Ns can offer up mine fame and success, provide up my status, give up my money. Ns willing to dice for her.” You establish this is love.”
Jet Li has said the he battles with love scenes in his movies since has normally introverted personality. On his net log the said, “Every time I start a move I don’t know how to have actually a conversation v the woman lead. I’m fairly introverted.”
Jet Li blog: alivenot dead.com/26
Jet Li Hong Kong Films
While quiet s a teenager Jet Li appeared in the Hong Kong movies “Once top top a Time in China” (1981), which made him a star, and “Shaolin Temple”, (1982), which made Shaolin temple a major tourist attraction as the birthplace the kung fu and remains among the most popular kung fu movies ever.
Some critics think that Li’s ideal Hong Kong movies are “Fong stated Ache” and “My dad Is Hero”. In a memorable scene from “New Legend of Shaolin” that fights turn off a dozen attackers through an infant strapped to his back.
Jet Li was making the Chinese-language movie “Ci Ma” (“Piercing Horse”) in 2007 with Chinese actress and director Xu Jingiei.
Jet Li Hollywood Films
Jet Li made his Hollywood debut in the movie “Lethal Weapon 4" (1998), a relocate he took a pay cut to about $1 million to make, and appeared in “Romeo must Die” (2000), “Cradle 2 the Grave” and also “The One”. Warner Bros sign him approximately a multi-picture deal because women in a test audience loved him.
Li can barely speak any English once he make his Hollywood debut in 1998 but now is related to as fluent. That told the Los Angeles Times, “When I started I only knew exactly how to speak “good morning,” “thank you” and few single words. Warner Bros rental a teacher and he taught me enough. If you desire to do Hollywood movie you should study
The best scene in “Romeo should Die” shows Jet Li making use of his costar, the late hip hop singer Aaliya, together weapon in fight against a woman villain. Li said, "
Jet Li is reserved to show up as Kato in the film variation of the “Green Hornet”. That has likewise suppled his voice and stunts come the video game “Rise and Honor”.
Jet Li’s “Fearless” to be released in September 2006. The is around a kung fu master who transforms from a fighter right into to a male who preaches martial arts as a means of self-betterment. Top top the role, Li said, “It’s my most crucial film because it is the heart if mine philosophy---that the biggest foe is within yourself.” it is around the late martial artist Huo Yiuanjia,
In “Rouge” Jet Li dram a violent assassin who is seek by an FBI certified dealer whose partner was eliminated by Li’s character.
Jet Li has actually criticized Chinese censors, specifically in to the ro the truth that couple of of his Hollywood movies are displayed on the mainland. “Romeo should Die” was banned since of that gangsters. “Kiss the Dragon” was banned since Li’s character, a policeman, kills foreigners.
Jet Li and Jackie Chan
The fight scenes were choreographed by Yuen Woo-Ping, who functioned with Chan on his first moves however hadn’t functioned with that in more than 30 years. He was chosen due to the fact that he was the one male respected through both Chan and also Li.
Director if the film Rob Minkoff said the everyday Yomiuri, “A week prior to shooting the movie, both of castle told me the they are scared to death and also they want to gain out. They called their managers and also said, “Can we get out? and the managers said, “It’s as well late; us cashed the check.” happen them with each other in an initial place he was no item of cake. “You have actually like those two large nations all of sudden ramming together to shot to execute a merger...It’s simply an overwhelmingly complex and an overwhelming to deal with.”
“You have actually the two largest movie stars in Asia---largest martial arts stars particularly...All the customary points that they would gain suddenly are challenged. Who’s gonna to get first billing, who gonna get second billing, who gonna acquire this, who’s gonna acquire that?..You had to make certain that they were going come be treated equally, because the fact is, the 2 of them had an enormous amount to shed if this no work.”
On Jackie Chan and also Jet Li, Time film doubter Richard Corliss wrote: “For every the safety and security precautions taken, the 2 stars still have actually to give every fiber of their disciplined, battered body to get through the kung-fu scenes. The what make them action stars to begin with: the willingness to screen their physical presents while undergoing something like physical torture. In a expression macho masochism.”
In his blog Chan said, the scenes were supposed to take all day but were perfect in a pair of hours. “The short sparring that lasted a few moves went very smoothly. It was prefer lightning with a brother from the exact same school the martial arts. Us blended easily on every move, be it on terms of timing or rhythm.
Jet Li’s 1000 village Plan
Tony Blair and also Jet Li space collaborating ~ above the “1000 town Plan,” a setup to make 1000 villages global energy efficient, with 400 the the villages space to it is in in China.
Jet Li is among China"s best-known philanthropists many thanks to his One Foundation. He freshly highlighted the challenges such groups face when he claimed its future was uncertain as result of its blurry legal status, informing state broadcaster CCTV that soon “it will certainly be doubted by those that seek more transparency and also professionalism in China"s charity development.” Li met through Bill Gates and Warren Buffett once they came too China urging Chinese billionaires to offer to charity.
See more: How To Say Physician In Spanish, Spanish Word For Physician
Image Sources: Wikipedia
Text Sources: new York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, time of London, national Geographic, The brand-new Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.