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You are watching: List four common examples of amorphous solids
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Figure 3: The two basic cooling paths whereby a group of atoms can condense. Route 1 is the path to the crystalline state; course 2 is the rapid-quench route to the amorphous hard state.
Figure 3, which need to be check out from appropriate to left, suggests the two varieties of scenarios the can happen when cooling reasons a given number of atoms to condensation from the gas phase right into the fluid phase and also then right into the hard phase. Temperature is plotted horizontally, if the volume occupied by the product is plotted vertically. The temperature Tb is the cook point, Tf is the freezing (or melting) point, and Tg is the glass shift temperature. In scenario 1 the liquid freezes at Tf into a crystalline solid, through an abrupt discontinuity in volume. When cooling wake up slowly, this is commonly what happens. At sufficiently high cooling rates, however, most materials display screen a different behaviour and also follow path 2 to the hard state. Tf is bypassed, and also the fluid state persists until the lower temperature Tg is reached and also the second solidification script is realized. In a narrow temperature range near Tg, the glass change occurs: the fluid freezes right into an amorphous solid v no abrupt discontinuity in volume.
The glass transition temperature Tg is not as sharply characterized as Tf; Tg move downward slightly when the cooling rate is reduced. The factor for this phenomenon is the steep temperature dependency of the molecular an answer time, which is crudely suggested by the order-of-magnitude values displayed along the optimal scale of figure 3. When the temperature is lowered listed below Tg, the solution time for molecular rearrangement becomes much larger than experimentally easily accessible times, so that liquidlike mobility (Figure 1, right) disappears and the atomic configuration becomes frozen into a collection of addressed positions come which the atoms room tied (Figures 1, left, and also 2B).
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Some textbooks erroneously define glasses as undercooled viscous liquids, however this is in reality incorrect. Along the section of course 2 labeled fluid in number 3, the is the part lying in between Tf and also Tg that is correctly connected with the summary of the product as an undercooled fluid (undercooled definition that that temperature is listed below Tf). But listed below Tg, in the glass phase, it is a bona fide solid (exhibiting together properties together elastic stiffness against shear). The short slopes that the crystal and glass line segments of number 3 in comparison through the high steep of the liquid section reflect the truth that the coefficient of thermal development of a solid is small in comparison v that that the liquid.