For this analysis we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adults in December 2019 as part of the 2019 nationwide Survey the Latinos. We asked inspection respondents about their awareness of the ax Latinx and their views of the term. The sample contains 2,094 spain adults who were members of Pew research study Center’s American patterns Panel (ATP), an digital survey panel that is recruited v national, random sampling of residential addresses. It also includes an oversample the 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, one more online inspection panel additionally recruited with national, arbitrarily sampling of residential addresses. Because that the purposes of this report, recommendations to foreign-born Hispanics include those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico space U.S. Citizens by birth. The inspection was conducted in both English and also Spanish.

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See the Methodology section of this report for an ext details.


The state Hispanic and Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.

Latinx is a term used to describe human being who space of or relate to Latin American origin or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary different to Latino or Latina.

U.S. Born refers come persons born in the unified States and those born in other countries to parental at the very least one the whom was a U.S. Citizen.

Foreign born refers to persons born external of the United states to parental neither that whom was a U.S. Citizen. The terms international born and immigrant are used interchangeably in this report. For the purposes of this report, foreign born also includes those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico space U.S. Citizens by birth, they space included amongst the international born because that this report due to the fact that they space born right into a Spanish-dominant society and due to the fact that on plenty of points your attitudes, views and also beliefs are much closer to hispanics born abroad 보다 to hispanics born in the 50 states or the district of Columbia, even those who recognize themselves as being that Puerto Rican origin.

Second generation ad to human being born in the 50 says or the district of Columbia through at the very least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent.

Third and higher generation advert to human being born in the 50 says or the district of Columbia v both parental born in the 50 states or the ar of Columbia.

Language prominence is a composite measure based on self-described assessments that speaking and also reading abilities. Spanish-dominant people are more proficient in Spanish than in English (i.e., they speak and read Spanish “very well” or “pretty well” however rate your English-speaking and reading capacity lower). Bilingual advert to civilization who are proficient in both English and also Spanish. English-dominant human being are an ext proficient in English 보다 in Spanish.


Pan-ethnic brand describing the U.S. Populace of human being tracing their roots to Latin America and also Spain have been introduced over the decades, rising and falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use space Hispanic and also Latino, with beginnings in the 1970s and also 1990s respectively.

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More recently, a new, gender-neutral, pan-ethnic label, Latinx, has arised as an alternative that is supplied by part news and also entertainment outlets, corporations, neighborhood governments and also universities to define the nation’s Hispanic population.

However, because that the population it is expected to describe, just 23% that U.S. Adults that self-identify together Hispanic or Latino have actually heard that the ax Latinx, and also just 3% speak they use it to describe themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual inspection of U.S. Spain adults conducted in December 2019 through Pew research Center.

The development of Latinx synchronizes with a worldwide movement to present gender-neutral nouns and pronouns into numerous languages whose grammar has actually traditionally used male or mrs constructions. In the joined States, the first uses of Latinx appeared more than a te ago. The was added to a widely offered English thesaurus in 2018, reflecting its greater use.

Yet the usage of Latinx is not common practice, and the term’s emergence has generated debate around its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Some critics allude to that is origins among U.S. English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and its gendered form.1 Still, there are examples of the term’s use in Spanish in the U.S. And also abroad.2 Meanwhile, others see Latinx together a gender- and LGBTQ-inclusive term, mirroring a broader movement in ~ the U.S. Roughly gender identity.

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While only around a quarter of U.S. Spain say they have heard the hatchet Latinx, awareness and use vary across different subgroups. Young Hispanics, ages 18 come 29, are among the most most likely to have heard that the ax – 42% to speak they have actually heard that it, contrasted with 7% that those ages 65 or older. Hispanics through college suffer are much more likely come be mindful of Latinx 보다 those there is no college experience; around four-in-ten Hispanic college graduates (38%) to speak they have heard of Latinx, as do 31% the those v some college experience. By comparison, simply 14% the those with a high college diploma or less are aware of the term.

In addition, the U.S. Born are much more likely 보다 the international born to have actually heard the ax (32% vs. 16%), and Hispanics who are mainly English speaker or bilingual are much more likely than those who greatly speak Spanish come say the exact same (29% because that both vs. 7%).

Hispanics who determine with or lean towards the democratic Party are more likely to have heard of Latinx than those who determine with or lean toward the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%).

Awareness that the hatchet Latinx does not necessarily translate into use. Throughout many demographic subgroups, the re-publishing of Hispanics that say they usage Latinx to define their own identity is substantially lower than the share who say they have actually heard it. Use is amongst the greatest for spain women periods 18 come 29 – 14% speak they usage it, a considerably higher share 보다 the 1% that Hispanic males in the same age group who say they usage it.


The development of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx

Throughout the critical half-century in the U.S., different pan-ethnic terms have developed to describe Americans who map their roots to Latin America and Spain.

The term spain was very first used by the U.S. Federal government in the 1970s after mexico American and also other Hispanic organizations lobbied the federal federal government to collection data on the population. Subsequently, the U.S conference passed Public law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of information about U.S. Residents of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, main American, southern American and other Spanish-speaking country origins. The law called for the U.S. Census bureau to produce a wider category that included all world who determined having root from these countries. The term hispanic was first used in a complete census in 1980.

The 1990s lugged resistance to the ax Hispanic, as it taken on a strong connection through Spain, and also an alternate term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the U.S. Office the Management and Budget issued a directive adding the hatchet Latino to government publications. The two terms are provided interchangeably, v Latino first appearing on the U.S. Census in 2000, together Hispanic.

More recently, Latinx has arised as an alternate to Hispanic and Latino. Digital searches for the term among the general U.S. Population appeared digital in the beforehand 2000s. Yet the an initial substantial increase in searches (relative come all online searches) showed up in June 2016 adhering to a shooting in ~ Pulse nightclub, one LGBTQ dance society in Orlando, Florida, the was hosting that Latin Night ~ above the date of the attack. In succeeding years, the term’s use on society media through celebrities, politicians and also grassroots organizations has grown. In addition, some scholastic centers at neighborhood colleges, windy universities and also Ivy organization universities are replacing Latino program names that were developed in previous years with new Latinx-focused names.

In an ext than 15 years of polling by Pew study Center, fifty percent of americans who map their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and Spain have actually consistently said they have no preference for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to explain the group. And when one ax is favored over another, the term Hispanic has been preferred to Latino. Importantly, the same surveys show, country of beginning labels (such together Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are preferred to these pan-ethnic terms amongst the population they room meant to describe.


Google searches for Latinx increasing in U.S., but trail far behind Latina, Latino and Hispanic

The family member popularity that Latinx in online searches in the U.S. Has actually increased because 2016, follow to a Pew research Center analysis of Google trends data.3 if its more quickly Google searches extend back to the early on 2000s, the greatest monthly relative number of searches for Latinx developed in June 2020, surpassing a previous height in October 2019.4

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Compared through June 2020, monthly Google searches for Latinx increased substantially for the first time in June 2016, following the Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida.5Despite its increase in popularity, Google searches because that Latinx remain below those for Latina, Latino and also Hispanic end the previous decade. Among these terms, Latina has presented the greatest popularity, despite its share of searches has been falling relative to its peak in June 2014.6

Should Latinx be embraced as a pan-ethnic term for U.S. Hispanics?

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Among those mindful of Latinx, one-in-three speak it have to be offered to define the nation’s Hispanic or Latino population.

While part Hispanics speak Latinx have to be provided as a pan-ethnic term, couple of say they prefer it over others. A bulk (61%) speak they prefer Hispanic to explain the spain or Latino populace in the U.S., and 29% speak they favor Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% say they favor Latinx to describe the hispanic or Latino population.

Preference for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is higher among those that are aware of it – 10% in this group say they favor Latinx. However even among those conscious of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and Latino (31%) room preferred.

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In their own words: What walk Latinx typical to Hispanics?

When request in one open-ended question what Latinx method in their very own words, 42% of those who have actually heard the term describe it together a gender-neutral one. Together one 21-year-old woman said, “Latinx is a more inclusive ax to use for those who do not select to determine with a details gender. The state Latino and also Latina are really limiting for particular people.”

Other responses indigenous the open-ended inquiry offer other descriptions of Latinx and also reactions come it. For example, 12% of respondents who had actually heard of Latinx express disagreement or dislike the the term. Some defined the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while rather say the term is “not representative the the larger Latino community.”

Among other responses, 12% speak Latinx is a term around being hispanic or Latino, while 9% that those mindful of Latinx to speak it is one LGBTQ ar inclusive term. And 6% of respondent who have heard the Latinx speak it is a new, different or replacement term because that Latino.