GLOSSARY U.S. History POST-1865 Brown v. Board of education and learning Supreme Court case, 1954, claimed segregation doctrine of “separate but equal” was no Constitutional when applied to the public college system. Plessy v. Ferguson U.S. Can be fried Court decision; developed legality of racial segregation so lengthy as infrastructure were “separate yet equal.” Adolph Hitler totalitarian leader the Nazi Germany during human being War II. Allied Powers countries united versus Axis during world War II. Led by US. Andrew Carnegie Scottish-born American industrialist who made his luck in the stole industry. Andrew Johnson politician indigenous Tennessee; President following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Very first President to be impeached (he was uncovered not guilty). Antitrust laws and regulations design to defend trade and commerce indigenous unfair service practices. Axis alliance of countries that opposed the Allies in people War II. Babe Ruth “Sultan the Swat,” baseball great played for brand-new York Yankees, “Home operation King” till 1974, attributed with saving the game of baseball ~ disgrace of the 1919 world Series. Berlin Airlift delivery of supplies in a German city come circumvent the Soviet blockade. Large Stick diplomacy Theodore Roosevelt"s foreign policy in Latin America. Blitzkrieg rapid new attack an approach used by Nazi Germany in WWII. Bonus military During the an excellent Depression (specifically 1932), group of veterans protested in Washington, D.C. To receive “bonus” because that fighting in world War I, though payment was not required until the following decade. Booker T. Washington U.S. Educator and also reformer; became prominent african American leader that his time. Buffalo Soldiers nickname given to black soldiers with the U.S. Mounties who helped to spread out the U.S. From the west in the years following the polite War. Carpetbaggers world who relocated to the South throughout or complying with the civil War and also became active in politics, they assisted to carry Republican manage of southerly state governments during Reconstruction and were bile resented by most white Southerners. Charles Lindbergh piloted an initial solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic s in 1927 board his airplane, The heart of St. Louis. Chinese exemption Act law passed in 1882, forbade any kind of laborers indigenous China to go into the United states for 10 years.Civil legal rights Act the 1964 Signed into law by chairman Johnson; law defended African Americans and women from job discrimination and also any differentiate in windy places. Cold battle name offered to the relations in between U.S. & Soviet Union in second fifty percent of 20th century which saw the buildup of nuclear arms. Compromise of 1877 solution to the contested Presidential election of 1876 and additionally brought an finish to the duration of Reconstruction adhering to the polite War. Conservation movement American creation of man Audubon and others that wished to protect natural habitat from guy in the 19th century. They lobbied continuously for parks and also human exemption from the wild. Détente basic reduction in tension in between Soviet Union and also United States; late 1960s until the begin of the 1980s. Disagreement Diplomacy global relations influenced by financial considerations. Douglas MacArthur US basic who offered as chef of staff and commanded Allied forces in the southern Pacific during people War II; he embraced the surrender that Japan (1880-1964). Dust key term provided to the area of the an excellent Plains most greatly influenced during the good Drought the the 1930"s. Dwight Eisenhower US basic who looked after the invasion of Normandy and the loss of Nazi Germany; 34th chairman of the United claims (1890-1961). Eighteenth amendment prohibited the sale and also use of alcohol addict beverages. Emancipation Proclamation order issued during the Civil war by president Lincoln finishing slavery in the Confederate states. Environmentalism advocacy for or work toward protecting nature from devastation or pollution. Excise tax tax top top production, transportation, revenue or intake of a certain an excellent or service. Federal Reserve central banking authority in the united States; supervises commercial financial institutions by surveillance accounts and controlling interest rates. Federalist Papers collection of write-ups written come persuade new York to ratify the Constitution. Feminist movement movement aimed at equal civil liberties for women. Flappers nickname provided to women of the 1920s that wore their costume short, their hair shorter, and also lived a an extremely active society life. George Custer U.S. Cavalry General whose unwise and also reckless conduct gained him and also over 200 soldier of the Seventh cavalry killed at the fight of Little big Horn Ghost dance A native American movement in the 1890s that thought a ritualistic ceremony would result in the reanimation of Indian dead and also the defeat of the white invaders into the West. Gospel of wide range hypothesis that riches was the an excellent end and also aim that man, the one point needful.Grangers group of American farmer who unified in the so late 19th century come lobby conference to pass laws protecting them indigenous unfair business practices of huge industry. An excellent Depression duration of worldwide economic situation that lasted native 1929 come 1939. Over there was extensive poverty and high unemployment. An excellent Society President lindon B. Johnson’s domestic programs, amongst them VISTA, project Corps, Head Start, the “War top top Poverty,” and the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Greenback Party political party created after the civil war, and opposed palliation in the quantity of document money in circulation. Harlem Renaissance duration during 1920’s of superior creativity centered in new York"s black color ghetto. Holocaust act of genocide carried out by Nazi Germany top top Jewish population of Europe. House Act regulation passed in 1862 enabling any citizens or applicant because that citizenship over 21 years old and also head the a household to obtain 160 acre of public floor by living on it and also cultivating it for five years. Horatio Alger united States author of inspirational adventure story for boys; virtue and hard work overcome poverty. Revenue Tax taxes levied on net an individual or company income. Interventionism policy of advocating participation in foreign countries affairs. Isolationism policy of nonparticipation in international affairs. Woman Addams Reformer; founder that Hull House, a settlement residence that aided immigrants that the late 19th century come to be acclimated to life in the joined States, and was a pioneer in the ar of social work. Jim Crow laws Laws requiring the facilities and also accommodations, public and also private, it is in segregated by race. John D. Rockefeller new York industrialist; made thousands of millions that dollars in the 19th century v Standard Oil agency and pioneered the corporate strategy of upright integration. Man F. Kennedy 35th chairman of the US, known for authorizing the failure “Bay of Pigs” invasion, successfully leading the nation during the “Cuban Missile Crisis,” and for gift assassinated; Dallas, Texas, November, 1963. Oriental War national dispute in an eastern country aided by Russia in the North and the U.S. In the south (1950-1953). Ku Klux Klan secret society organized in the south after the Civil battle to reassert white supremacy by way of terrorism. Laissez-faire French term; means “to leaving alone; let do”; viewpoint that federal government should continue to be out that the work of businesses. Lusitania sinking the this ship carried the U.S. Right into WWI.Malcolm X connected with confrontational Civil rights protest; leader in nation of Islam in US; early on advocate that “Black Power,” became a more moderate voice in the Civil legal rights movement prior to his assassination in 1965. Marshall plan Following world War II, dubbed for giving away billions the dollars in assist to help rebuild war-torn Europe, v the function of producing a viable commerce partner and post-war allies. McCarthyism Term for unscrupulously accusing human being of disloyalty come the us (by speak they to be Communists, usually through sketchy or no evidence). Monopoly when one firm controls the sector for a details product, over there is no competition. Muckrakers group of authors and also journalists wrote of awful working conditions in American market in the early 20th century, resulting in an ext governmental security of workers. NAACP (National Association for the development of colored People) oldest and largest U.S. Civil legal rights organization. Members that this have referred come it together The national Association. NAFTA (North American free Trade Agreement) commitment signed in 1993 to minimize tariffs in between the joined States, Canada, and Mexico nativism so late 19th century political and also social movement in US, its followers believing the all people not born in the U.S. And also were of europe heritage must be banned native the country. NATO (North Atlantic contract Organization) international organization developed by the U.S. And allies in 1949 come prevent strikes by the Soviet Union. Brand-new Deal programs and policies come promote financial recovery and also social reform introduced throughout the 1930"s by chairman Franklin D. Roosevelt. New Freedom Woodrow Wilson"s plan to rest up monopolies and regulate business. Nineteenth amendment gave women the appropriate to vote. Normandy invasion D-Day; operation Overlord, the Allied intrusion of west Europe that began on June 6, 1944. Nüremburg war Trials Nazi world War II criminals were tried throughout these before an global tribunal. Open up Door policy U.S. Foreign policy that all nations should have equal access with China. Open Market openly competitive market operating there is no government-imposed restrictions. Arranged Crime movement in the early 1900s i beg your pardon resorted come violent crime. Pacifists people opposed come violence to obtain end goals. Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and also Pacific oceans through central America. Pearl port U.S. Naval base assaulted by the Japanese that brought the U.S. Into WW II. Poll tax Payment supposed to keep particular groups of human being (mainly former slaves and also African-Americans) indigenous being permitted to vote.Populist movement that supported state manage of railroads and also currency expansion. Steady Movement political reform movement in the so late 19th and also early 20th centuries to safeguard working course citizens. Prohibition outlawing of the sale, production, or transport of alcoholic beverages. Red Scare period after WWI; enormous upheaval in the U.S. And also fear of many foreigners; defined by widespread fears that Communist influence on U.S. Society and Communist infiltration the the U.S. Government. Reserve necessity percentage of their deposits the member financial institutions must keep obtainable in a federal Reserve Bank. Robber Barons American capitalists; latter 19th century; became wealthy through exploitation (as of herbal resources, government influence, or short wage scales). Roosevelt Corollary plan reasserted the U.S. Place as protector of the western Hemisphere. (addition come Monroe Doctrine) stormy Riders regiment in the Spanish-American battle organized and led by Theodore Roosevelt; had cowboys, miners, policemen, and college athletes. Sacco and Vanzetti instance murder attempt in Massachusetts, 1920; stirred national emotion around the fatality of 2 Italian immigrants. Some felt they to be victims that the Red scare of 1919 and 1920. Lock were known to the authorities together radical militants connected in the anarchist movement, labor strikes, political agitation, and anti-war propaganda. They believed themselves come be victims of social and political prejudice. Scopes psychological brought about due come the to teach of development in a Tennessee classroom. Seventeenth amendment provided for the direct election the U.S. Senators. 16 amendment made personal income tax permanent.. Social Darwinism theory that world are topic to natural choice and wealth was a sign of superiority. Social security federal government program; gives income support to civilization who space unemployed, disabled, or over the age of 65. An are Race Cold battle competition between the U.S. And Soviet powers for an are exploration. Spanish American War problem in which the U.S. Gained countless island territories, particularly Puerto Rico and also the Philippines. Square transaction Roosevelt"s plans to assist safeguard the civil liberties of workers. Sun belt term provided to says in the southern and warmer parts of the country that witnessed a tremendous increase in populace and sector in the years following civilization War II. Theodore Roosevelt 26th chairman of the US; hero that the Spanish-American War; Panama canal built during his administration; said `Speak softly but carry a huge stick` (1858-1919). Considered by many to be the nation"s an initial conservation President.Thomas Edison “Wizard that Menlo Park,” ; famous for hundreds of inventions, consisting of incandescent light bulb, phonograph, and also Dictaphone. Totalitarian central government the does no tolerate opposing political opinions. Transcendentalism philosophical and also literary movement; thought there to be an existence of suitable spiritual reality, rising over the material and also scientific. Truman Doctrine us would aid any country in resisting cultivation threat the communism and became the guiding pressure of American foreign policy during the Cold War. TVA (Tennessee sink Authority) created by congress as one of the major public-works jobs of the brand-new Deal, this built a system of dams in the southeast. United Nations global organization developed following human being War II to provide a method to negotiate disputes. Urbanization increase in a society"s city population. Rise of large cities. Warsaw Pact military alliance between the Soviet Union and also the nations of east Europe. Winston Churchill This was a british statesman and also leader during people War II. Women s Suffrage motion to offer females the right to vote. Woodrow Wilson 28th chairman of the joined States; led us in world War I and also secured the formation of the organization of countries (1856-1924). WPA (Works progression Administration) developed in 1935 under the brand-new Deal, that aimed to stimulate the economy during the good Depression and preserve the skills and self-respect of unemployed persons by giving them useful work.

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Yellow Journalism usage of sensationalized news in newspaper posting to tempt readers and also increase circulation. Zimmerman keep in mind Germany sent out this come Mexico instructing an ambassador to to convince Mexico to go to war through the U.S.