Density is characterized as mass every unit volume. Fixed is a property and the SI unit for thickness is <kg/m3>.

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Density deserve to be express as

ρ = m / V = 1 /ν <1>

whereρ = density , m = massive , V = volume , ν = particular volume ,

The imperial (U.S.) devices for thickness areslugs/ft3 but pound-mass per cubic foot - lbm/ft3 - is often used. Note that there is a difference between pound-force (lbf) and also pound-mass (lbm). Slugs have the right to be multiplied through 32.2 because that a stormy value in pound-mass (lbm).

1 cheese = 32.174 lbm = 14.594 kg 1 kg = 2.2046 lbm = 6.8521x10-2 slugs density of water: 1000 kg/m3, 1.938 slugs/ft3

See also Unit converter - mass and Unit converter - density

On atomic level - particles room packed tighter inside a problem with greater density. Thickness is a physical property - consistent at a offered temperature and also pressure - and may be beneficial for identification of substances.

Below top top this page: particular gravity (relative density), particular gravity for gases, details weight, calculation examples

Se also: Densities because that some usual materials Water - Density, specific Weight and also Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation v temperature in ~ 1, 68 and 680 atm, SI and also Imperial devices Air - Density, details Weight and also Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation v temperature and pressure, SI and also Imperial units how to measure thickness of fluid petroleum products

Example 1: thickness of a Golf ball example 2: Using thickness to recognize a Material example 3: thickness to calculate Volume Mass

Specific gravity (Relative Density) - SG - is a dimensionless unit identified as the ratio the the thickness of a substance to the thickness of water - at a specified temperature and also can it is in expressed as

SG = ρsubstance / ρH2O <2>

whereSG = certain Gravity of the substanceρsubstance = density of the liquid or problem ρH2O = thickness of water - generally at temperature 4 oC

It is typical to use the thickness of water in ~ 4 oC (39oF) as a reference because water in ~ this allude has its highest density of 1000 kg/m3 or 1.940slugs/ft3.

Since certain Gravity - SG - is dimensionless, it has actually the same value in the SI system and also the royal English mechanism (BG). SG of a liquid has the exact same numerical value as its density expressed in g/mL or Mg/m3. Water is normally likewise used as reference as soon as calculating the specific gravity because that solids.

See also Thermophysical nature of Water - Density, freezing temperature, cook temperature, Latent warm of melting, Latent warmth of evaporation, an essential temperature ...

example 4: details Gravity of Iron details Gravity for some common Materials SubstanceSpecific Gravity- SG -
Acetylene 0.0017
Air, dry 0.0013
Alcohol 0.82
Aluminum 2.72
Brass 8.48
Cadmium 8.57
Chromium 7.03
Copper 8.79
Carbon dioxide 0.00198
Carbon monoxide 0.00126
Cast iron 7.20
Hydrogen 0.00009
Lead 11.35
Mercury 13.59
Nickel 8.73
Nitrogen 0.00125
Nylon 1.12
Oxygen 0.00143
Paraffin 0.80
Petrol 0.72
PVC 1.36
Rubber 0.96
Steel 7.82
Tin 7.28
Zinc 7.12
Water (4oC) 1.00
Water, sea 1.027
Wood, Oak 0.77

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Specific gravity of gases is typically calculated with referral to wait - and defined together the proportion of the density of the gas to the thickness of the air - at a mentioned temperature and pressure.

The certain Gravity can be calculated as

SG = ρgas / ρair <3>

whereSG= specific gravity that gasρgas= density of gas ρair= thickness of air (normally in ~ NTP - 1.204 )

Molecular weights deserve to be provided to calculate particular Gravity if the densities the the gas and the air space evaluated in ~ the very same pressure and also temperature.

See also Thermophysical properties of air - density, viscosity, critical temperature and also pressure, triple point, enthalpi and also entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusicity,......

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Specific Weight is characterized as weight per unit volume. Load is a force. The SI unit for details weight is . The royal unit is .

Specific load (or force per unit volume) deserve to be to express as

γ = ρ ag <4>

whereγ = certain weight (N/m3>, ρ = density , ag = acceleration of heaviness (9.807 , 32.174 under normal conditions)

Example 5: certain Weight the Water

particular Weight because that Some typical Materials
ProductSpecific load - γ -Imperial systems (lb/ft3)SI systems (kN/m3)
Aluminum 172 27
Brass 540 84.5
Carbon tetrachloride 99.4 15.6
Copper 570 89
Ethyl Alcohol 49.3 7.74
Gasoline 42.5 6.67
Glycerin 78.6 12.4
Kerosene 50 7.9
Mercury 847 133.7
SAE 20 motor Oil 57 8.95
Seawater 63.9 10.03
Stainless Steel 499 - 512 78 - 80
Water 62.4 9.81
Wrought Iron 474 - 499 74 - 78

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Example 1: density of a Golf ball

A golf ball has a diameter of 42 mm and a fixed of 45 g. The volume that the golf ball deserve to be calculate as

V = (4/3) π (42 * 0.001 /2)3 = 3.8 10-5

The density of the golf ball deserve to then it is in calculated as

ρ = 45 * 0.001 / 3.8 10-5 = 1184

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Example 2: Using density to recognize a Material

An unknown liquid substance has actually a mass of 18.5 g and also occupies a volume that 23.4 ml (milliliter).

The density of the substance deserve to be calculation as

ρ = (18.5 /1000 ) / (23.4 /(1000 * 1000))

= 18.5 10-3 /23.4 10-6 = 790

If we look increase the densities that some usual liquids we find that ethyl alcohol - or ethanol - has a thickness of 789 kg/m3. The liquid may be ethyl alcohol!

Example 3: thickness to calculate Volume Mass

The thickness of titanium is 4507 kg/m3. The massive of 0.17 m3 volume titanium have the right to be calculation as

m = 0.17 * 4507 = 766.2

Note! - be conscious that there is a difference between "bulk density" and actual "solid or product density". This may not be clean in the summary of products. Always dual check worths with other sources before important calculations.

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Example 4: details Gravity of Iron

The thickness of steel is 7850 kg/m3. The particular gravity that iron related to water with density 1000 kg/m3 is

SG(iron) = 7850 / 1000 = 7.85

Example 5: specific Weight that Water

The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 at 4 °C (39 °F).

The certain weight in SI devices is

γ = 1000 * 9.81 = 9810 = 9.81

The thickness of water is 1.940 slugs/ft3 at 39 °F (4 °C).

The particular weight in royal units is

γ = 1.940 * 32.174 = 62.4

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Engineering ToolBox, (2003). Density vs. Specific Weight and particular Gravity. easily accessible at: .

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