**Density** is characterized as *mass every unit volume*. Fixed is a property and the SI unit for thickness is <*kg/m*3>.

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Density deserve to be express as

ρ = m / V = 1 /ν <1>

whereρ = density

The imperial (U.S.) devices for thickness are*slugs/ft3* but *pound-mass per cubic foot* - *lbm/ft3 -* is often used. Note that there is a difference between pound-force *(lbf)* and also pound-mass *(lbm)*. Slugs have the right to be multiplied through 32.2 because that a stormy value in pound-mass *(lbm)*.

See also **Unit converter - mass** and **Unit converter - density**

On atomic level - particles room packed tighter inside a problem with greater density. Thickness is a physical property - consistent at a offered temperature and also pressure - and may be beneficial for identification of substances.

Below top top this page: particular gravity (relative density), particular gravity for gases, details weight, calculation examples

Se also: Densities because that some usual materials Water - Density, specific Weight and also Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation v temperature in ~ 1, 68 and 680 atm, SI and also Imperial devices Air - Density, details Weight and also Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation v temperature and pressure, SI and also Imperial units how to measure thickness of fluid petroleum products

**Example 1: thickness of a Golf ball**** example 2: Using thickness to recognize a Material example 3: thickness to calculate Volume Mass**

**Specific gravity (Relative Density) **- **SG** - is a *dimensionless* unit identified as the *ratio the the thickness of a substance to the thickness of water* - at a specified temperature and also can it is in expressed as

SG = ρsubstance / ρH2O <2>

whereSG = certain Gravity of the substanceρsubstance = density of the liquid or problem

It is typical to use the thickness of water in ~ 4 oC (39oF) as a reference because water in ~ this allude has its highest density of 1000 kg/m3 or 1.940slugs/ft3.

Since certain Gravity - SG - is dimensionless, it has actually the same value in the SI system and also the royal English mechanism (BG). SG of a liquid has the exact same numerical value as its density expressed in *g/mL* or *Mg/m3*. Water is normally likewise used as reference as soon as calculating the specific gravity because that solids.

See also Thermophysical nature of Water - Density, freezing temperature, cook temperature, Latent warm of melting, Latent warmth of evaporation, an essential temperature ...

example 4: details Gravity of Iron details Gravity for some common Materials SubstanceSpecific Gravity-*SG*-

Acetylene | 0.0017 |

Air, dry | 0.0013 |

Alcohol | 0.82 |

Aluminum | 2.72 |

Brass | 8.48 |

Cadmium | 8.57 |

Chromium | 7.03 |

Copper | 8.79 |

Carbon dioxide | 0.00198 |

Carbon monoxide | 0.00126 |

Cast iron | 7.20 |

Hydrogen | 0.00009 |

Lead | 11.35 |

Mercury | 13.59 |

Nickel | 8.73 |

Nitrogen | 0.00125 |

Nylon | 1.12 |

Oxygen | 0.00143 |

Paraffin | 0.80 |

Petrol | 0.72 |

PVC | 1.36 |

Rubber | 0.96 |

Steel | 7.82 |

Tin | 7.28 |

Zinc | 7.12 |

Water (4oC) | 1.00 |

Water, sea | 1.027 |

Wood, Oak | 0.77 |

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**Specific gravity of gases** is typically calculated with referral to wait - and defined together * the proportion of the density of the gas to the thickness of the air* - at a mentioned temperature and pressure.

SG = ρgas / ρair <3>

whereSG= specific gravity that gasρgas= density of gas

Molecular weights deserve to be provided to calculate particular Gravity if the densities the the gas and the air space evaluated in ~ the very same pressure and also temperature.

See also Thermophysical properties of air - density, viscosity, critical temperature and also pressure, triple point, enthalpi and also entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusicity,......

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** Specific Weight is characterized as weight per unit volume. Load is a force**. The SI unit for details weight is

Specific load (or force per unit volume) deserve to be to express as

γ = ρ ag <4>

whereγ = certain weight (N/m3>,

**Example 5: certain Weight the Water**

ProductSpecific load - γ -Imperial systems (lb/ft3)SI systems (kN/m3)

Aluminum | 172 | 27 |

Brass | 540 | 84.5 |

Carbon tetrachloride | 99.4 | 15.6 |

Copper | 570 | 89 |

Ethyl Alcohol | 49.3 | 7.74 |

Gasoline | 42.5 | 6.67 |

Glycerin | 78.6 | 12.4 |

Kerosene | 50 | 7.9 |

Mercury | 847 | 133.7 |

SAE 20 motor Oil | 57 | 8.95 |

Seawater | 63.9 | 10.03 |

Stainless Steel | 499 - 512 | 78 - 80 |

Water | 62.4 | 9.81 |

Wrought Iron | 474 - 499 | 74 - 78 |

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### Examples

**Example 1: density of a Golf ball**

A golf ball has a diameter of 42 mm and a fixed of 45 g. The volume that the golf ball deserve to be calculate as

V = (4/3) π (42

The density of the golf ball deserve to then it is in calculated as

ρ = 45

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**Example 2: Using density to recognize a Material**

An unknown liquid substance has actually a mass of 18.5 g and also occupies a volume that 23.4 ml (milliliter).

The density of the substance deserve to be calculation as

ρ = (18.5

= 18.5 10-3

If we look increase the densities that some usual liquids we find that ethyl alcohol - or ethanol - has a thickness of 789 kg/m3. The liquid may be ethyl alcohol!

**Example 3: thickness to calculate Volume Mass**

The thickness of titanium is 4507 kg/m3. The massive of 0.17 m3 volume titanium have the right to be calculation as

m = 0.17

**Note!** - be conscious that there is a difference between "bulk density" and actual "solid or product density". This may not be clean in the summary of products. Always dual check worths with other sources before important calculations.

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**Example 4: details Gravity of Iron**

The thickness of steel is 7850 kg/m3. The particular gravity that iron related to water with density 1000 kg/m3 is

SG(iron) = 7850

**Example 5: specific Weight that Water **

The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 at 4 °C (39 °F).

The certain weight in SI devices is

γ = 1000

The thickness of water is 1.940 slugs/ft3 at 39 °F (4 °C).

The particular weight in royal units is

γ = 1.940

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## Citation

This page have the right to be quote as

Engineering ToolBox, (2003). Density vs. Specific Weight and particular Gravity.See more: Any Use Of The Senses To Gather Information About An Object Or Your Surroundings

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