How did the personality of American politics adjust between the 1820s and the 1850s together a result of growing popular participation?

Understanding

Between the 1820s and 1850, as much more white males won the right to vote and also political next became an ext organized, the character of American democracy changed. It became an ext partisan and more raucous, a rotate that bred ambivalence and even discontent v politics and also the leading parties.

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The ar Election


Images

Find much more primary resources on renowned democracy in between the 1820s and also 1850s in The Triumph the Nationalism/The residence Dividing.

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Common core State Standards

ELA-LITERACY RH.11-12.2 (Determine the central ideas or information of a major or second source…)

Advanced Placement united state History

Key ide 4.1 (IC) (…new political parties arose…)

Advanced placement Language and Composition

Analyze graphics and also visual images… as alternate forms that text.

Teacher’s Note

The richest paper of the three, The county Election is a reasonably reliable depiction of elections of this period. The tells united state who participated and also who to be excluded from election rituals. That illustrates exactly how the next induced voter to come to the polls and also vote for your candidates. They offered alcohol: keep in mind the three stages of inebriation — still mindful in the left corner, about to pass out in the right, and also long unable to do in the center. They involved in polite persuasion: keep in mind the party activist top top the stairway tipping his top hat and also offering what is probably a pre-printed party ballot to the rural gentleman. Yet there was likewise voter-to-voter case-making, unsponsored through the parties yet deeply major nonetheless: keep in mind the resolute look and finger-to-the-palm soot of the solid citizens in the ideal center. Despite its civic importance and the touch the solemnity imparted by the oath-taking man at the top of the stairs, there is about the whole scene the wait of a convivial neighborhood gathering, perfect for children and also tolerant the stray dogs.

While Bingham’s The ar Election offers large commentary on well-known elections, Woodville’s Politics in one Oyster House makes a more concentrated point. It depicts the passionate commitments that party national politics stirred up, together exemplified by the number on the right, but likewise suggests that no everyone mutual those passions. It is worth discussing what the mindset of the figure on the left is towards his companion’s politics harangue. The larger gentleman stares almost directly in ~ us, seeming come implore us to rescue the from his tedious companion. Here, together in The ar Election, a newspaper fuel opinions and also stirs emotion.

The Agrarian Workingmen’s Party cartoon was most likely published during the 1830 political campaign in new York (the men detailed on the flag ran for office the year as candidates for the Agrarian Party, a splinter team of the city Workingmen’s Party). The cartoon depicts 2 kinds that politics: one the corruption that republican virtue, the other a reconstruction of it. On the left, a party politician dressed together a wealthy male — note the top hat again — and carrying a bag the money makes a address Satan. The asks Satan to “give me one of your favourite — TAMMANY, SENTINEL, or JOURNAL — or the negative will gain their rights. I’ll pay all.” Tammany to be the Tammany Society, among the most an effective Democratic clubs in brand-new York. The Sentinel and also the Journal were the newspapers of competitor workingmen’s factions that pummelled the Agrarian Party’s political stands. In other words, the evil one controls every the the contrary parties; they are all his favorites. By turning one — any one — over to the hack, he will insure that the negative will it is in oppressed. In contrast, ~ above the right, a workingman, raising a ballot, ideologies a box carried by Lady Liberty, that holds a pole adorned with a liberty cap, a price of revolution and equality.

This class is separated into 2 parts, both accessible below. Three photos with accompanying close reading questions administer analytical study. One optional follow-up assignment enhances the lesson. The teacher’s guide contains a background note, the image analysis with responses to the close reading questions, and an optional follow-up assignment. The student’s version, an interactive PDF, contains every one of the above except the responses to the close reading questions and the follow-up assignment.

Teacher’s overview (continues below)Background noteImage analysis and close reading questions with answer keyFollow-up assignmentStudent variation (click come open)Interactive PDFBackground noteImage evaluation and close reading questions

Background

From the 1820s through the 1850s American politics became in one sense much more democratic, in another more restrictive, and, in general, an ext partisan and much more effectively regulated by national parties. Due to the fact that the 1790s, politics became much more democratic together one state after another ended residential property qualifications because that voting. Politics became much more restrictive together one state after another formally excluded african Americans native the suffrage. By 1840, nearly all white men might vote in all but three states (Rhode Island, Virginia, and Louisiana), while african Americans to be excluded native voting in all but five states and also women to be disfranchised everywhere. In ~ the same time, political leaders in numerous states began to recreation the two-party problem that had been the norm during the politics struggles in between the Federalists and also the Jeffersonian republicans (1793–1815). Parties and party conflict became national v Andrew Jackson’s project for the presidency in 1828 and have stayed so ever before since. Parties nominated candidates because that every elective post from fence viewer to president and fought valiantly to obtain them elected.

The variety of newspapers exploded; the vast bulk of them to be mouthpieces because that the democratic Party or the Whig Party (the nationwide Republican Party prior to 1834). Accompanying the newspapers was a overwhelming of pamphlets, broadsides, and also songs aimed at winning the assistance of ordinary voters and also teaching them to think together a Democrat or a Whig. Parties likewise created gigantic and also incredibly effective grass-roots organizations. Each party in virtually every institution district and also urban ward in the nation formed an electoral committee, which organized partisan parades, dinners, and also picnics; dispersed partisan newspapers and pamphlets, and canvassed door-to-door. In this way the parties got ordinary voters connected in politics, resulting in exceptionally high voter participation rates (80–90%). Even more than in the previously period, parties to be centrally coordinated and controlled. They meant their leaders, your newspapers, and also their voter to toe the party line. As soon as the party caucus or convention had decided on a policy or a candidate, everyone was intended to support that decision.

The Democrats, nationwide Republicans, and Whigs were no the only human being creating a new kind the democracy, however. Number of small, sectional parties promoted a method of conducting politics that to be quite different from the methods of the significant parties. The Workingmen’s Party, for example, arranged in the significant northeastern cities and in dozens the small, industrial towns in brand-new England. Workingmen’s next were component of the arising labor movement and were made up primarily of professional craftsmen who trades were being industrialized. In addition, a farming movement of evangelical christians sought come reform society by advocating temperance, an finish to prostitution, the abolition that slavery, women’s rights, and also more.

The two paintings and also the cartoon readily available here catch the passion, tumult, and divisions that involved characterize American democracy at this time.

George Caleb Bingham (1811–79) was among the many successful and also important American artist of the early nineteenth century. Born in 1811 come a prosperous farmer, miller, and also slaveowner in west Virginia, Bingham knew prosperity but likewise experienced economic hardship as soon as his father lost his property in 1818 and also again when his father passed away in 1823. When he was a cabinet-maker’s apprentice, Bingham started painting portraits for $20 apiece and, through 1838, was beginning to obtain a reputation as an artist. Throughout the 1840s he moved to St. Louis, the biggest city in the West, whereby he sought a successful career together a portrait artist. In 1848 he was chosen to the Missouri general Assembly and also later hosted several appointive posts. V gentle humor The ar Election catches the arguing, the campaigning, and also the drinking the accompanied the masculine routine of vote in mid-nineteenth century countryside America.

Richard Caton Woodville (1825–55) to be born in Baltimore. His household hoped he would become a physician, and he did undertake medical studies in 1842. However, through 1845, when he traveled to Germany come train in ~ the Dusseldorf Academy, he had abandoned medicine to pursue a career as an artist. Back he spent the remainder of his life in Germany, France, and England, he committed himself come re-creating his indigenous Baltimore on canvas. Through humor akin to the of Bingham, Politics in one Oyster House depicts a “conversation” between a young politics enthusiast and a hesitant old-timer. Together in The county Election, the political realm is solely masculine, for the oyster house is a male-only pub.

The Workingmen’s Party cartoon illustrates disillusionment with and also dissent native the sharply divisive national politics of the age. It argues that the corruption the both the Whigs and the democrats will bring about the oppression of the poor.

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Analysis

For every image, before posing the content-specific questions detailed below, we recommend that you have students conduct a general analysis using the complying with four-step procedure.

Visual Inventory: define the image, start with the largest, most noticeable features and proceed toward an ext particular details. Define fully, there is no making evaluations. What do you see? What is the setting? What is the time of day, the season the the year, the an ar of the country?Documentation: note what girlfriend know around the work. That made it? When? Where? What is its title? how was that made? What were the circumstances of the creation? how was that received? (With this action you may have to aid students. Describe the lesson’s background note for information.)Associations: begin to make evaluations and also draw conclusions making use of observations and also prior knowledge. Exactly how does this picture relate to its historical and social framework? Does the invite compare or correlation with historic or literary texts? do you recognize a point of check out or a atmosphere conveyed by the image? Does the present any type of unexplained or complicated aspects? does it trigger an emotional solution in you as a viewer? What associations (historical, literary, cultural, artistic) enrich your viewing the this image?Interpretation: construct an translate of the work which both establish its details features and likewise places that in a larger historical or thematic context.The ar Election