Want to understand the difference in between a Picardy third and a Neapolitan Sixth? Scroll with our musical terms (which us are always updating) to find out!

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8vb

Abbreviation for ottava bassa or “at the octave below.” This point out is discovered below particular notes on a staff and indicates that those notes have to be perform one octave lower than written.

You are watching: When harmonized by chords, row, row, row your boat is an example of

composed Performed

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12 Bar Blues

The most common kind of the blues, that is a twelve-bar chord progression that is repetitive throughout the song. A an excellent example the a 12 Bar Blues track is “Tutti Frutti” by little Richard.


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A Capella

Group or solo to sing without important accompaniment. Some teams use their voices to emulate instruments, while others are more traditional and focus top top harmonizing. One of the most famous a capella groups is Pentatonix. Examine out this video clip of one of their most famous songs, “Mary Did friend Know.”


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A Tempo

A directive to return to the original tempo after a intentional deviation.

Ad Libitum

Probably an ext recognizable as “ad lib”, it method “at the discretion of the performer.” It provides the performer control over the passage, because that example, changing the tempo the a particular passage, or a component that may be skipping if desired.

Anacrusis

Also well-known as a pickup, it is a note or succession of note which comes before the an initial downbeat in a bar in a music phrase.

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Arpeggio

When the note of a chord are performed one after the other rather of all at the same time.

Chord vs. Arpeggio

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Atonal

A generalizing term used to define music that seems to lack a clean tonal center.

Aubade

Morning music; a morning concert in the open air performed for a particular individual. This is different from a serenade, i m sorry is carry out in the evening.

Bandmaster

A share term used to designate the leader the a band. Back this term have the right to be applied to any person the leads a band, that is most often connected with the leader that a military band, concert band symphonic band, or marching band. The bandmaster is normally the manager or conductor of the band and also can also responsible for the administrative aspects of the organization.

Bagatelle

Used together the location of a short light-hearted piece of music, it was employed most notably by Beethoven in a collection of together compositions for piano. The descriptive title was thereafter provided by a number of other composers.

Bal Musette

A style of French music and dance that very first became well-known in Paris in the 1880s, typically accompanied through accordions.

Baritone

The Baritone is the second lowest singing range, and overlaps both Bass and Tenor. The typical baritone range is indigenous A2 to A4, and also might extend down come F2 or up to C5. The baritone voice kind is the most common form of masculine voice.

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Baroque

A style of europe architecture, music, and also art demonstrated from around 1600 – 1750 (following The Renaissance) the is characterized by ornate detail. During this time music came to be tonal (as opposed to modal) and also saw the bear of new forms, consisting of the Opera, Sonata, Oratorio, Suite, Fugue, and also Concerto. A few of the significant composers throughout this time incorporate Vivaldi, Bach, Handel, Purcell, Scarlatti, and Pachelbel.

Browse Baroque paper Music.

Bass

The lowest singing range and generally lies between E2 come E4. In the lower and also upper extremes of the bass voice, some basses deserve to sing native C2 come G4.

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Binary Form

Describes the structure of a item of music that is split into 2 different sections. The 2 sections are usually labeling A and also B.

Block Chords

Also referred to as ‘locked hands’ the is a format of piano playing where both hands are ‘locked’ together, playing chords in parallel v the melody, usually in relatively close position. The is a technological procedure requiring lot practice and also can sound dated if the harmonies room not advanced enough.

Melody

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Melody through Block Chords

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Blue Note

A flatted note, specifically the 3rd or seventh range degree, recurring typically in blues or jazz as a properties feature.

Blues Scale

A Pentatonic scale with one more note (added in the scale). This keep in mind is well-known as a blue note and it is the flattened 5th in the instance of the young Pentatonic scale or the flattened third in the case of the major Pentatonic Scale.

C significant Blues Scale

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A young Blues Scale

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Bongo Drums

A pair that permanently attached small single-headed north the larger of i m sorry is tuned about a fifth below the smaller sized drum.

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Borrowed Chord

Also dubbed mode mixture and modal interchange, the is a chord obtained from the parallel crucial (minor or major scale with the very same tonic). For example, a song in C major could “borrow” chords from C Minor.

Key of C Major

Parallel vital = C Minor

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In C Major, there are no sharps or flats, for this reason the Fm Chord is being “borrowed” native C young to produce a various sound.

Borrowed Division

The exercise of “borrowing” the subdivision of one meter into an additional meter. For example, borrowing the subdivision of straightforward time and inserting it into compound time, or angry versa.

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Breath Mark

Also known as a luftpause, the is a symbol used in musical notation. That directs the performer of the music i to take it a breath or to do a slight pause. This pause is typically intended to shorten the duration of the coming before note and also not the tempo; in this function, it have the right to be believed of choose a grace rest. It is usually shown by a comma-like symbol.

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Breve

A note lasting 2 times as long as a whole note (a twin whole note). It is usually indicated as:

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Caesura

A rest or interruption in music, notated by 2 diagonal present ( // ). The break have the right to be of any kind of length in ~ the discretion the the conductor.

Cadence

A progression of at the very least two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or item of music.

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Cajon

A box-shaped percussion instrument initially from Peru, play by slapping the prior or rear deals with (generally slim plywood) through the hands, fingers, or sometimes miscellaneous implements such together brushes, mallets, or sticks.

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Canon

A compositional technique, based on the principle of strictly imitation, in i beg your pardon an initial melody is imitated at a mentioned time interval by one or an ext parts, either at the very same pitch or in ~ some other pitch.

The earliest known form of Canon is dubbed a Round. We space going to show it through the melody that “Row, Row, Row, her Boat”. Notification how the same melody is repetitive on every line (two bars after ~ the previous entrance) so the the parts are overlapping. Grab part friends and shot to song or play through it!

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Cappriccio

A quick, improvisational, spirited item of music.

Chromatic Scale

A musical range with twelve pitches, every a semitone above or below another.

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Clefs

A symbol the is placed at the left-hand end of a staff, describe the pitch of the notes composed on it. There space many species of clefs, however the 4 most typical are Treble, Bass, Alto, and also Tenor.

Treble Clef

Also well-known as the G ClefNotates the higher registers the music

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Bass Clef

Also known as the F ClefNotates the lower registers the music
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The Treble Clef and also Bass Clef space the 2 most commonly used by every instrumentalists and also vocalists

Alto Clef

Places center C (C4) on the third lineAlso recognized as the Viola ClefUsed because that the viola, the viola da gamba, the alto trombone, and the mandala

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Tenor Clef

Places center C (C4) top top the 2nd lineUsed for the upper varieties of the bassoon, cello, euphonium, dual bass, and also trombone

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Circle the Fifths

The relationship amongst the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding an essential signatures, and also the associated major and minor keys. One of Fifths progressions are thought about to be harmonically an extremely strong, in the sense that they pull our ears towards one chord gift the tonic.

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Learn more about the circle of Fifths and also how to usage it.

Common Time / cut Time

Common Time is the very same thing as 4/4 Time. That can be described by a “C” symbol, but it is an ext common to watch 4/4. Cut Time, however, is typically indicated by the price “C” with a cut in the middle of it. This method that it is in reality 2/4 Time notated and also executed favor 4/4 Time, except with the beat lengths doubled.

Common Time Symbol

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Cut Time Symbol

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Compound Meter

Any time signature in i m sorry the upper figure is a lot of of 3, such as 6/8, 9/8, 12/8, etc. To win are divided into 3 notes, together opposed to simple Meter, wherein they are divided into two.

straightforward Meter link Meter

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Contralto Voice

A kind of classical female to sing voice who vocal variety is the shortest female voice type. The contralto’s vocal variety is relatively rare; similar to, but different from the alto, and nearly identical to that of a countertenor, typically in between the F listed below middle C (F3) come the 2nd F over middle C (F5), although some voices reach beyond.

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Contrary Motion

The activity of 2 melodic present in the opposite directions.

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Da Capo

Used together a direction in music, it is a music term in Italian an interpretation “from the beginning”. The is often abbreviated as “D.C.”

Deceptive Cadence

A chord progression that seems to result in resolving chin on the last chord; yet does not.

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In this details phrase, girlfriend would intend the V7 Chord to resolve to I.

The Cadence is “Deceptive” due to the fact that it resolves on the Minor by means of chord instead.

Decibel

Commonly abbreviated together “dB”, that is a logarithmic unit for measuring the strongness of sound which coincides to the listener’s late of loudness.

Approximate typical Sound Levels

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Diphthong

A sound formed by the combination of 2 vowels in a solitary syllable, such together in the civilization “loud” or “coin.” Singers must be mindful of diphthongs in solo vocal music, however even more so mindful in vocal or choral ensembles. Also for the many experienced directors, obtaining a choir to song a diphthong in unison is a an extremely tricky task!

Dissonance

Harsh, discordance, and also lack that harmony.

Dominant

The 5th tone or degree of a diatonic scale or the triad build upon this degree. Because that example, in the key of C Major, the dominant Scale degree would it is in G, and the dominant Chord would be G Major.

The the strongest harmonic development in tonal music is native the dominant chord to the tonic triad.

In the vital of C Major, G is the 5th range Degree, making that the Dominant.

The adhering to excerpt display screens the dominant CHORD.

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Notice the G Chord has an added 7th, which provides it an also stronger sound and also desire to deal with to the tonic.

Dolcissimo

Used as a direction in music, definition “sweetly, softly, v tender emotion”.

Doloroso

A directive to musicians to do the suggested passage the a ingredient in a sorrowful, mournful or plaintive manner.

Doppio Movimento

A directive to play a particular passage double as fast. Regularly used in associate with usual time changing to cut time.

Dynamics

The sport in loudness in between notes or phrases. The most commonly used dynamics are: pianissimo, piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte, and fortissimo.

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Enharmonic

Referring come notes, intervals, or crucial signatures having actually the very same pitch however written in different notation.

Each group of 2 notes is an example of Enharmonic Notes. Although lock look like different pitches, the accidentals advanced or lower them come the be the same.

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Ensemble

A team of civilization who perform critical or vocal music, v the ensemble typically known through a unique name. Part music ensembles consist specifically of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra, while others consist specifically of singers, such as choirs and also a cappella groups.

Étude

A short musical composition, typically for one instrument, designed as an exercise to enhance the technique or demonstrate the skill of a player.

Exposition

The early stage presentation of the thematic material of a music composition, movement, or section.

Eye Music

Music the is pleasing or puzzling to the eye, nevertheless of how it sounds to the ear. In part cases, the music might make no sense to the ear however has a an enig puzzle or message once visually analyzed. This music was most common in the middle Ages and also Renaissance periods.

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Fake Book

A collection of musical lead sheets (mostly supplied in jazz) intended to help a performer conveniently learn and perform new songs. Each track in a fake book contains the melody line, simple chords and sometimes lyrics – the minimal details needed through a musician or tiny group to do an impromptu, extemporized arrangement of a song, or “fake it”.

Family

A grouping of tools which produce sound in the exact same manner and also are constructed in the same method but in various sizes such together the clarinet family, the saxophone family, the violin family and also so on.

Fermata

A prize that enables a keep in mind or remainder to be organized for as lengthy as desired.

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Fieramente

A directive come a musician to do the suggested passage that a composition in a proud, haughty, or noble manner.

Figured Bass

A bass line v the intended harmonies indicated by “figures” rather than composed out as chords, usual of continuo components in Baroque music.

See more: Importance Of Recrystallization In Organic Chemistry, Recrystallization

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Fortepiano

A suddenly dynamic change used in a music score, come designate a ar of music in which the music should be play loudly (forte), then immediately softly (piano). The is usually indicated by the complying with abbreviation:

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Fugue

A compositional an approach characterized through the methodical imitation the a major theme (called the subject) in simultaneously sounding melodic currently (counterpoint). Among the most renowned fugues is Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D Minor.