Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the carry of an electron native a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed between cations and also anions.A cation is created when a steel ion loses a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. Castle both accomplish a much more stable digital configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, through high melt points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, make the resulting solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to tempt electrons to itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemistry bond in i beg your pardon valence electron are shed from one atom and also gained through another. This exchange outcomes in a an ext stable, noble gas digital configuration for both atom involved. One ionic link is based on attractive electrostatic forces in between two ions of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and an anion. The bond is formed when an atom, generally a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a confident ion, or cation. Another atom, generally a non-metal, is may be to get the electron(s) to end up being a negative ion, or anion.

One instance of one ionic link is the formation of salt fluoride, NaF, native a salt atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough an are to accept it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due come electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: one electron is transferred from Na come F. The result Na+ and F– ions room electrically attracted to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, are crystalline solids under regular conditions, and have high melt points. Most of these solids space soluble in H2O and also conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The capability to conduct electricity in equipment is why this substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example that this type of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable electronic states connected with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons are shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the larger the difference in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the greater the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids form when cations and anions are attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond strength in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the components that influence it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is identified as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot be measured empirically, but it can be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that add to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and radius that the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warm into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic solid from gas ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. That is defined as the warmth of development for ion of opposite charge in the gas step to integrate into an ionic solid. As an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to form a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an adverse sign the the power is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of together the energy required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, depicted in purple and also green respectively, alternating in the crystal lattice of heavy NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction shown above).

Lattice power cannot be figured out experimentally because of the challenge in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value have the right to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it have the right to be calculation theoretically with an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the complying with model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristics of the compressibility of the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of cost-free space; and r0 is the distance to the closestly ion.

This design emphasizes 2 main components that contribute to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, that the ions. The effect of those factors is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller lattice energies tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound can be determined by the lose or acquire of valence electrons necessary in stimulate to attain stable, noble gas digital configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are merged in an ionic link is the simplest ratio of entirety integers that have the right to be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written form and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the aspects of team 18 of the regular table, which are monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i beg your pardon occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has actually no excess or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula of a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion composed of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is developed through the transfer of one or much more valence electrons, commonly from a metal to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and also an anion that are bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and are solids at common temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride decision lattice


The charge on the cations and also anions is determined by the number of electrons required to attain stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic composition is then characterized by the requirement that the resulting link be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we first note the digital configurations of these atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to shed its two valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, requires one additional electron to to fill its external shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to be neutral, two bromine anions must integrate with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio that 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will accomplish the two needs above, the formula because that ionic compounds is frequently presented as the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number proportion of atoms with optimistic integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the created form, when the cation surname is usually the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –ide, together in the case of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix have the right to vary, yet is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of salt phosphate and also calcium nitrite, depending on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– incorporate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– incorporate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- incorporate to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- combine to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- combine to type Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- incorporate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– integrate to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer of valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared in between the ingredient atoms, an interpretation all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature of a link is established by the loved one electronegativities that the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent bond that has actually a partial ionic character to it, as a an outcome of the distinction in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of one atom to lure electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are commonly classified through the bonds in between constituent atoms. There are multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the finish loss or obtain of one or an ext valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, bring about cations and anions the are organized together through attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond between lithium and also fluorine to kind LiF.


Example of a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom creates a bond through fluorine, they share a pair the electrons. However, due to the fact that fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attractive that shared electron pair closer come itself and also thus create an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atoms is supplied to show the presence of partial charges. This link is thought about to have characteristics of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atoms is more complicated than this design illustrates. The bond developed between any two atom is no a purely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character since the electron thickness remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic matches covalent personality of a shortcut is determined by the distinction in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The larger the difference, the more ionic the nature the the bond. In the standard presentation, bonds room designated together ionic when the ionic aspect is greater than the covalent facet of the bond. Binding that fall in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, room classified together polar covalent bonds. Such bonds room thought of together consisting the partially charged optimistic and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, these designations are frequently advantageous in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds typically have higher boiling and also melting points, and also they are likewise usually an ext soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.