Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the carry of an electron from a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds room formed between cations and also anions.A cation is developed when a metal ion loser a valence electron while an anion is developed when a non-metal profit a valence electron. Lock both achieve a much more stable digital configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, with high melting points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic compound which disappear in H2O, make the result solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to tempt electrons come itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemistry bond in i m sorry valence electron are shed from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a much more stable, noble gas digital configuration because that both atoms involved. One ionic link is based on attractive electrostatic forces in between two ions of opposite charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and also an anion. The link is developed when an atom, typically a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and also becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. Another atom, commonly a non-metal, is may be to acquire the electron(s) to end up being a negative ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic bond is the formation of salt fluoride, NaF, native a salt atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loses its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough an are to expropriate it. The ions created are oppositely charged and also are attractive to one one more due to electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: an electron is transferred from Na come F. The resulting Na+ and also F– ions room electrically attracted to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, space crystalline solids under normal conditions, and also have high melting points. Most of these solids are soluble in H2O and conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electrical energy in equipment is why this substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example the this kind of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, but the bigger the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the greater the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids type when cations and anions room attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond stamin in an ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that influence it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is identified as the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, yet it have the right to be calculated using electrostatics or approximated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that contribute to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius the the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic solid from gaseous ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an calculation of the bond strength in ionic compounds. The is identified as the warmth of development for ions of opposite fee in the gas step to incorporate into one ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice energy of salt chloride, NaCl, is the energy released once gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to kind a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign of the energy is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and also green respectively, alternating in the decision lattice of heavy NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of together the energy required to different a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).

Lattice energy cannot be identified experimentally as result of the challenge in isolating gaseous ions. The power value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it can be calculation theoretically through an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande gift the adhering to model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which relies on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility of the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and also r0 is the street to the the next ion.

This model emphasizes two main factors that contribute to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and the radius, or size, the the ions. The impact of those components is:

as the fee of the ions increases, the lattice energy increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies have tendency to be much more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in an ionic compound deserve to be figured out by the ns or get of valence electrons vital in stimulate to accomplish stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The number of cations and also anions that are merged in an ionic link is the simplest proportion of entirety integers that have the right to be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the facets of group 18 that the periodic table, which room monatomic and, v very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit the electrons.empirical formula: The most basic whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion composed of several atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is created through the transport of one or more valence electrons, frequently from a steel to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and an anion that are bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and also are solids at typical temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice


The charge on the cations and anions is established by the number of electrons compelled to achieve stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then identified by the need that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to combine magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we very first note the digital configurations of these atoms (valence level in shown in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to lose its two valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to fill its external shell. Therefore, because that the resulting compound to be neutral, two bromine anions must integrate with one magnesium cation to form magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio of 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two demands above, the formula because that ionic link is typically presented together the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number ratio of atoms with positive integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, while the cation surname is generally the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –ide, as in the situation of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, its suffix deserve to vary, yet is generally either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of salt phosphate and also calcium nitrite, depending on the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– combine to type LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to type CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- incorporate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- combine to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- combine to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- combine to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– incorporate to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the finish transfer the valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared in between the constituent atoms, meaning all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature of a bond is established by the relative electronegativities the the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has actually a partial ionic personality to it, as a result of the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of one atom to lure electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compounds are generally classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There are multiple type of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are normally presented as the finish loss or acquire of one or more valence electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, bring about cations and also anions that are hosted together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond in between lithium and fluorine to kind LiF.


Example the a polar covalent bond: once a carbon atom forms a bond with fluorine, castle share a pair the electrons. However, since fluorine is an ext highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attracts that shared electron pair closer come itself and also thus create an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atom is offered to indicate the existence of partial charges. This link is considered to have characteristics of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complex than this model illustrates. The bond formed between any kind of two atom is no a purely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character since the electron density remains shared in between the atoms. The level of ionic matches covalent personality of a shortcut is established by the distinction in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature of the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds are designated together ionic when the ionic facet is better than the covalent facet of the bond. Bonds that loss in between the two extremes, having both ionic and covalent character, are classified as polar covalent bonds. Together bonds space thought of together consisting of partially charged positive and an unfavorable poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character represent points follow me a continuum, these designations are frequently valuable in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds frequently have greater boiling and also melting points, and also they are likewise usually much more soluble in water than covalent compounds.