Parallel structure, or parallelism, way using the exact same pattern of indigenous to display that two or an ext words or principles are of equal importance. Words and also phrases in ~ a sentence should not only complement in structure, but also in tense. Writers use parallel framework to include clarity to their writing, do it much easier to understand and show the their writing is structurally and also grammatically correct. Discover parallel structure to much better understand the concept.



The problematic areas are italicized below.

Ashley likes to ski, to swim and jump. (There demands to it is in a "to" between "and" and also "jump," to it is in parallel v the other items. )She likes dancing and also to sing songs. (This should pair "to dance" through "to sing" for this reason the infinitive type is used throughout the sentence.)

Parallel structure With -ing Endings

Be consistent and also use parallel structure with native that finish in -ing.


The interlocutor words suggest that parallel building is offered correctly.

Joe likes running, walking and being active.We enjoy relaxing and sitting the end in the sun.

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The words that need to be parallel but aren"t are displayed in italics here.

Joe likes running, walking and outdoor activities. ("Running" and "walking" room parallel through each other, however "outdoor activities" is not parallel. Use "participating in the end activities" or similar.)We gain relaxing and like come sit out in the sun. (The italicized phrases room not parallel; they have to both incorporate verbs that end in -ing.)


The interlocutor terms illustrate parallel construction in between the clauses.

The teacher told lock that they need to study and that they should practice their words every night. My parents said get a good education and also do not resolve for less.


In this, the clauses carry out not illustrate parallel construction. The trouble wording is highlighted.

The teacher told them to research and that they have to practice their words every night. (This sentence should either include "that they" in both clauses, prefer the correct instance above, or the should include the native "said" between "that" and also "they.")My parents said to get a great education and not work out for less. (Here, the word "to" need to be included before "not" in the italicized text.)

Parallel structure in Lists with Colons

When you have actually items top top a list complying with a colon, the items must all be in the same kind in stimulate to avoid a parallel structure error.


Wording that indicates parallel construction in these is bold.

The following activities can be excellent at the mall: buying groceries, eating lunch and paying bills.In your bedroom, friend will discover the following: a bed, a closet and also a desk.


The problematic wording in this is emphasize in italics.

The following tasks can be excellent at the mall: buying groceries, eating lunch and bill payment. ("Bill payment" need to be composed as "paying bills" in stimulate to display parallel construction.)In her bedroom, you will discover the following: a bed, a closet and, sitting in ~ a desk. (You shouldn"t list 2 nouns v an activity in this kind of list. It could read, "a bed, a closet, and also a workdesk if that is what the writer means. If the writer desires to define someone sit at a desk, that have to be part of a brand-new sentence. )

Parallel framework in other Lists

Even as soon as a colon isn"t used to present a list, parallel building is important.


The state that kind parallel framework in these sentences are bold.

Mary wanted to make certain that she made her presentation creatively, effectively and also persuasively.Tim was taken into consideration to it is in a an excellent employee since he to be always on time, he was an extremely motivated and also he was a great leader.


Parallel constructor errors space italicized.

Mary wanted to make certain she made she presentation creatively, effectively and persuaded others.

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("Persuaded others" is no parallel through the other list items.)Tim was taken into consideration to it is in a good employee since he was constantly on time, he was very motivated and also led the team well. ("Led the team well" is no parallel through the various other list items.)

Parallel framework in Verb Tense

Keep in mind the parallel structure need to be supplied when it involves verb tense. Your verb tenses should always match.


The bold words in these are all past tense, which means they room the parallel construction.

She wrote a letter and also mailed it to the school.Yesterday us watched a movie, played video games and also made pizza.


The below mix tenses. The problem wording is italicized.

She writes a letter and also mailed it come the school. (This mixes present and also past tense; both words need to be the same tense.)Yesterday we watched a movie, play video clip games and also made pizza. ("Watched" and "made" are previous tense, however "play" is current tense. It must be "played" due to the fact that the sentence specifies this took place in the past.)

The prestige of Parallel Structure

Parallel structure provides flow in a sentence. That keeps your writing balanced and makes it less complicated to read. It additionally shows that concepts are of equal importance. Errors in parallel structure can make your writing sound strange come listeners. Many tests, including the SAT, will require you to recognize parallel framework errors together a way of testing your writing abilities. To further increase your knowledge about parallel structure in writing, testimonial these the parallelism in literature and also rhetoric.