Download PDF

An Effective but Controversial Ruler

Wu Zhao (624–705), additionally known together Empress Wu Zetian, was the an initial and just woman emperor of China. Through her superior intelligence, especially competence in politics, and also inordinate ambition, she ruled together the “Holy and also Divine Emperor” that the 2nd Zhou dynasty (690–705) for fifteen years. Her remarkable political leadership is recognized and also is equivalent in some ways to other notable women in later on periods of world history, such together Joan of Arc, Queen Elizabeth I, and Catherine the Great. It need to be noted, though, the whether fully deserved or not, Wu has actually a reputation of being one of the most cruel rulers in China’s history. She continues to be a controversial figure primarily since of stories about her an individual actions versus rivals. Masculine Confucian officials that were deeply prejudiced against solid and ambitious women indeed exaggerated this element of Wu’s life in later accounts of she reign. Still, there is likewise substantial verifiable proof of she ruthlessness toward an effective real or imagine opponents.

You are watching: Which statement best describes the economy of tang and song china?

The flavor Dynasty

The Tang empire (618–907) is just one of the gold ages that China’s history. World background scholar Samuel Adshead has embraced the ax “world center” to define China’s place in the world from 400 to 1000.1 The glory and brightness of Chinese culture during the Tang duration was in stark comparison to the Dark eras in Europe. The so-called “Golden Age” (712–755) arised shortly following the fatality of Wu, and also Tang China subsequently experienced considerable political, economic, social, and intellectual development.

The tang was a unified empire, established by the Li family who seized power throughout the collapse of the Sui empire (581–618). Li Yuan (later Emperor Gaozu, r. 618–626) and his armies seized the capital, Chang’an, in 617. His son, Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong, r. 626–649 and future husband the Wu), join the rebellion. In 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of the new Tang Dynasty. Flavor China enjoyed far-ranging diplomatic relations, playing host to Persian princes, Jewish merchants, and Indian and Tibetan missionaries. The scope and also sophistication that the flavor Empire’s political advancement during these golden years was better than either India or the oriental Empire.

During the Tang, the Silk roadways were at their height of influence. During Wu’s life, overland trade routes carried massive entrepreneurial avenues with the West and also other components of Eurasia, do the capital of the Tang realm the many cosmopolitan of the world’s cities. Although merchants dealt for and also traded numerous goods, business involving textiles, minerals, and also spices was specifically prominent. Through such avenues of contact, flavor China was ready for alters in culture and culture.

Tang ladies were assertive, active, and an ext visible; castle rode horses, donned masculine attire, and participated in politics.

Li Zhi cave at the Longmen Grottoes close to Luoyang in Henan Province, China is the ancestor-worshipping cave, and also the biggest of all caves carved on the west hill. It was built in between 672 and also 676 for Empress Wu Zhao. It features a big Vairocana Buddha. Source: Wikimedia Commons at

The fourth accomplishment was Wu’s patronage of Buddhism. As a child, Wu was introduced to Buddhism by she parents, and, as detailed earlier, she to be briefly a buddhist nun. After she obtained power, Wu aided spread and also consolidate Buddhism and also supported the faith by erecting holy places so priests might explain buddhism texts. She thought very of Huayan Buddhism, which regarded Vairocana Buddha together the center of the world, very similar to Wu’s desire to become the divine emperor. Wu’s buddhism sect additionally encouraged its pendant to regard your earthly ruler as the representative the Vairocana Buddha, a id that Wu probably regarded rather favorably together Empress. Wu assumed herself a reborn Buddha and a descendent the the old Zhou kings. In 692, she approve an edict forbidding the butchery that pigs. In the eye of Chinese Buddhists, Wu may have actually been a renowned ruler. She patronage that Buddhism led the means for its spread throughout the reign of Emperor Ruizong, as soon as voluminous Buddhist messages were translated, edited, and published.

The fifth accomplishment was Wu’s promo of literature and art. She was a poetess and artist. Little is written in English concerning the creative life of Wu, for scholars have actually put lot weight on her ambitious politics life. In Wu’s childhood, she had the opportunity to find out history, literature, poetry, and music. During her reign, she developed a group, “Scholars that the north Gate,” because that the promo of the associates’ literary pursuits. Both Emperor Gaozong and Wu were fond the literature and poems, and helped create a society of literary quests that prospered in flavor China. Some influential Tang poets such together Li Bai (701–762) and also Du Fu (712–770) showed up after the fatality of Wu. Even numerous Tang courtesans were good singers and poetesses.

The final success was Wu’s support of women’s rights. She started a series of campaigns to uplift the place of women. She advised scholars to write and edit biographies of exemplary females to help in the attainment of she political objectives. Wu asserted the the ideal ruler to be one that ruled as a mother does over she children. Wu also extended the mourning duration for a deceased mommy to equal the of a deceased father and raised the place of her mother’s clan by giving her loved ones high official posts. She may have thought the princesses to be conducive come reconciling diplomatic conflicts, due to the fact that she developed marriage partnerships to assist her expansionist international policy.

Many Confucian scholars probably viewed Wu’s habits as scandalous, immoral, and outrageous. Her gravestone was there was no sign by any eulogy; it to be deliberately left empty upon she request. She expected people of later on periods come evaluate her achievements.


Historical evaluations the Wu space mixed. The most favorable assessments highlight her high intelligence and also exceptional competence in many locations of governance. Together briefly discussed earlier, the biggest critics of Wu focus upon she ambitious character and ruthless actions come gain and keep power. At the very least in China, it appears based on contents in recent background textbooks the Wu is viewed much more favorably than in the past. In the 1950s, history textbooks put no load on Wu’s place in Chinese history because the Mao Era (1949–1976) emphasized a socialist revolution led by the masses rather than through “feudal rulers.” However, textbook writer evaluations that Wu often tended to be milder in the 1980s, the time once the policy of opening approximately the outside world began, thus broadening people’s perspectives. In the 1990s, when Chinese patriarchy displayed a clear increase in yongin for women, Wu Zhao was praised as China’s “only ruling empress” in background textbooks. Through the twenty-first century, instead of minimizing Wu’s political success and broadly emphasizing her personal actions and ruthlessness, in various renditions the Wu over there is much more of a tendency to emphasize she successes in governance and also her place in tang China’s “Golden Age.” This tendency runs respond to to the Confucian cultural tradition of minimizing female politics accomplishments.6

A additional legacy that Wu was women’s joining in politics. She to be a vivid example; later, Princess Taiping (her daughter) and also Empress Wei (her daughter-in-law) became involved in royal politics together well.

Controversies and also shifting interpretations of her life notwithstanding, Wu did leave some heritages to Chinese history. Many notably, she substantially boosted the civil company system and Imperial talent pool, initiated policies that strengthened the flavor economy, lowered taxes, apparently improved the life of typical people, and protected China’s borders while maintaining royal prestige. This successes make it much easier for successors, specifically Emperor Xuanzong (r. 712–756). Tang China scholar Charles Benn regards Xuanzong’s power as the “Golden Age,” which was the longest, the many glorious, and the many prosperous epoch of the flavor Dynasty, and a duration when the arts flourished.7

A more legacy that Wu was women’s participation in politics. She to be a lively example; later, Princess Taiping (her daughter) and Empress Wei (her daughter-in-law) became involved in royal politics as well. Empress Wei perhaps had actually pretensions that emulating Wu. In 710, she murdered her husband by poisoning him and also then engineered a coup hope to dominion after him. However, her planned takeover failed and Empress Wei was executed. Princess Taiping, though wielding great power in ~ the royal court, walk no better in attempting to monitor in her mother’s footsteps. In 713, she plotted to overthrow Emperor Xuanzong, yet the Emperor and also his loyalists discovered the coup and also killed Princess Taiping. At the very least some females leaders in twentieth-century China looked ~ above Wu together a model. Song Qingling (1893–1981), the mam of sun Yatsen, regarded Wu as an efficient political leader. Song was politically active in 1950s China and also in 1981 was awarded the title Honorary chairman of the People’s Republic of China. Jiang Qing (1914–1991), the mam of Mao Zedong, established with Wu. She may have tried to usage the instance of Wu as part of a propaganda project to claim herself the follower to Mao, yet she ultimately failed.

Wu likewise made her way into literature works. The fantasy/feminist Qing empire novel Flowers in the Mirror through Li Ruzhen (1763–1830) takes place during Wu’s rule. The fictional Wu authorize twelve decrees that were to plan to lug benefits come women. Although the decrees are fictional, Wu’s life perhaps inspired Li and also later authors who were pioneers of the emancipation of ladies in Qing China. Chronicler of Chinese women’s culture Dorothy Ko has observed that some ladies gentry in Qing China were far from oppressed or silenced and were popular poetesses, singers, editors, and also teachers who formed their own community networks.8

Wu Zhao possibly influenced attitudes about sexuality and also women; her reputation for sex-related promiscuity emerged during a relatively permissive duration of Chinese history. Tang China allowed women some latitude regarding remarriage and also sex. However, attitudes changed considerably after the Song duration (960–1279). The prominent Song theorist Zhu Xi (1130–1200) recipe the principle of different spheres and also reemphasized the importance of women’s chastity. He believed that the was better for a woman to starve 보다 be unchaste. Zhu was conscious of Wu and her scandals, the course, and thought that the reign of Wu to be unlawful; a woman’s suitable place to be at home. Together Zhu was the founder the neo-Confucianism, his see on women’s chastity had a far-ranging impact on later on scholars. Some Song chroniclers used the instance of Wu’s scandals in your writings around chaste women. The chastity cult survived to Qing China, however in present-day China, Wu receives a much more favorable image than before, as Chinese patriarchy has increased that tolerance toward women.

See more: Polaris Trail Boss 250 2 Stroke, Need Some Information On Polaris Trail Boss 250

Even though Wu passed away over 1,300 year ago, she stays a famous figure in China’s past and also controversy still surrounds her. She has been the subject of a collection of historic television drama in modern-day China, notably Hunan’s 2014–2015 dramatic series on Wumeiniang chuanqi (The Legend the the Charming Lady Wu or The Empress of China). The drama appealed to a large audience as well as provoking state censorship, no just since of that is extravagant budget and also boldness in production, but likewise its scandalous depiction of the actress pan Bingbing in the function of Wu and also audience’s attitudes around sexuality and also women. The drama first aired on commercial satellite terminal Hunan television on December 21, 2014, but was canceled a main later since of government censors’ objections and resumed broadcast on January 1, 2015, with nearly all the breasts and also cleavage that actresses cropped out. Some tv viewers room furious about state censorship since the edited drama has actually lost that aesthetic values and also is not historically accurate. Possibly there is constantly a tension between the ruling class and also people in your perceptions around sexuality and women, even if it is in Tang and also Song China or in current times. At any kind of rate, Wu Zhao remains vital historical figure from China’s imperial period.