Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and bases, proton theory of, proton concept of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, likewise called proton theory of acids and bases, a theory, introduced separately in 1923 through the Danish chemist john Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that can transfer a proton to any kind of other compound is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear fragment with a unit positive electrical charge; that is stood for by the price H+ because it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


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Overview of three theories of acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry plan a substance can role as an acid just in the presence of a base; similarly, a substance can function as a base only in the existence of an acid. Furthermore, once an acidic substance loses a proton, it develops a base, referred to as the conjugate basic of an acid, and also when a simple substance benefit a proton, it creates an acid dubbed the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction between an acidic substance, such together hydrochloric acid, and a simple substance, such together ammonia, may be represented by the equation:



In bespeak to deal with the various difficulties in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and bases, a new, more generalized definition...

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In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate to the base ammonia, and also the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate to hydrochloric acid.


The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the variety of compounds taken into consideration to be acids and also bases to incorporate not just the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids, and the alkali steel hydroxides) however also specific atoms and also molecules with hopeful and an adverse electrical dues (cations and also anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and also some hydrated metal cations are taken into consideration acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ion are thought about bases.

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